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   2017| January-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 28, 2018

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Oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among secondary school teachers and students in Ekiti State
Henry Ifeanyi Onwudi, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo, Okonkwo Chibuzo Stellamaris
January-June 2017, 5(1):16-24
Background: The important role of teachers in oral health education of their students cannot be ignored. Regrettably, many teachers especially in secondary schools in Nigeria lacked the knowledge and skills to play this part. This study was carried out to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among secondary school teachers and students in Ekiti state. Materials and Methods: A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect the necessary information. Results: A total of 100 teachers and 180 students participated in the study. The participants displayed a pattern of incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral health practices but positive oral health attitude. Females demonstrated better oral health-care practices than their male counterparts. Furthermore, the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices of the teachers were average while that of the students are less than satisfactory. Conclusion: Therefore, health educational programs to encourage healthy dental habits among teachers and students should be introduced into the school curriculum.
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Incidence of snake bite and utilization of antivenom in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria
Sylvester Erhunmwonsere Aghahowa, R Nosa Ogbevoen
January-June 2017, 5(1):5-10
Background: Bite resulting from animals seems to be a neglected disease. Since there were cases reported as emergency our institution, there is need to assess the incidence and drug utilization. Objective: To assess the incidence of snake bite and utilization of antivenom over 12 years in the Accident and Emergency Centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Data from medical record of snake bite and antivenom utilization between the year 2000 and 2011 were assessed from the centre after obtaining permission. Results: One hundred and thirty-six vials of polyvalent antivenom were utilized in the management of 129 patients that reported with snake bite. The victims were 103 (79.9%) males and 26 (20.2%) females within range of 2 years to 68 years (median, 34 years). The incidence was significantly higher among young adult males aged between 29 and 36 years. Limbs were the most common sites of bite and farmers were the most vulnerable which constituted larger proportion of 75 (58.14%) of unskilled workers. On arrival at the hospital, 90 (69.8%) of the victims had local tourniquet applied above the bitten sites. Their only description of snake was in color and size. Thirty-four patients visited herbalist before reporting to hospital. Oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin) and diclofenac were the most frequently used antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Maximum duration of hospitalization was (102 ± 0.61 h). No death was recorded following snake envenomation and no adverse drug reaction during therapy. Conclusion: Adequate stocking of antivenom is strongly recommended during drug procurement because snake bite complications can be fatal if not promptly treated.
  4,206 276 1
Radix entomolaris in the permanent mandibular first molars of davangere children: A prevalence study
NB Nagveni, P Poornima, Mebin George Mathew
January-June 2017, 5(1):11-15
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of radix entomolaris (RE) in permanent mandibular first molars among the Davangere children, India, using periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 199 (94 boys and 105 girls) patient's bilateral periapical radiographs were examined using magnifying lens. The prevalence, gender distribution, and symmetry of RE were recorded and analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Results: The prevalence of RE in permanent mandibular first molars was 4.5% for all patients examined and 2.5% for all teeth evaluated. The prevalence of RE seen in boys was 6.38% (6 of 94), and in females, it was 2.85% (3 of 105) which is statistically found insignificant (P = 1.232). Eight cases occurred unilaterally, and only one case of bilateral presence of RE was found. Among unilateral cases, 7 teeth showed the presence of RE on the left side, and only in one case, RE was present on the right side. This was found statistically highly significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Awareness of the high racial prevalence of RE (an unusual root variation) in permanent mandibular first molars among Davangere children is highly essential before and during the root canal treatment to achieve successful treatment outcome.
  2,540 202 1
Hemifacial microsomia – A case report and review
R Shruthy, P Sharada, NK Priya, HS Sreelatha, Pramod Kumar Jali, MS Suma
January-June 2017, 5(1):25-29
Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a craniofacial disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of anomalies, including conductive hearing loss due to external and middle ear deformities. HFM is a common term used to describe a sporadic complex spectrum of congenital anomalies that primarily involve the skeletal and soft-tissue components derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches. Although there is no universal agreement on the minimum diagnostic criteria, the facial phenotype, which is predominantly characterized by asymmetrical hypoplasia of the facial skeleton, the ear, and facial soft tissues are often distinctive enough to differentiate it from other craniofacial disorders. It is the most common facial congenital disability after cleft lip and palate, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 5600 births. We present a case of HFM in 13-year-old female.
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Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine toxicity among malaria patients in a developing tertiary institution: A 10 year assessment
SE Aghahowa, CI Eze
January-June 2017, 5(1):1-4
Background: Adverse effects such as Stevens Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis following the use of sulfonamide containing antimalarials seems to be on the increase despite the adoption of the new policy for malaria treatment in Nigeria. Aim: To assess the pattern and prevalence of Stevens Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as reported in the Accident and Emergency Centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria between the year 2001 and 2010. Materials and Methods: Reported cases of Stevens Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis were assessed retrospectively by using patient records. Results: Twenty-one patients reported with Stevens Johnson syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. The male to-female? of 2.8:1, 26 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard deviation). Three of the victims had their drugs after obtaining standard prescription and 18 self-administered their drugs. Eighteen of them claimed to have been treating malaria while three had theirs for prophylaxis. The highest incidence was in the year 2008 and 2010. Sixteen (76.19 %) of the cases or patients procured their drugs from unregistered shops. Nine (42.58 %) cases or patients repeated their drugs during therapy when they felt that the dosage at initiation of therapy did not work for them. Two of the patients were known HIV/AIDS patients. Zinc-oxide powder was the most common topical drug applied during hospitalization. Severity was paramount in all at the time of report. Skin eruption was very common. Only two of them did not survive after management. Conclusions: The study showed that fatalities associated with the use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were severe. Therefore, adequate measures are recommended through public enlightenment in ensuring adherence to regulatory policies.
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