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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| January-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 4, 2015

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Patterns of occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and its correlation with ergonomic hazards among health care professionals
Sokunbi O Ganiyu, Jaiyeola A Olabode, Maduagwu M Stanley, Ibrahim Muhammad
January-June 2015, 3(1):18-23
Background: Health care professionals are commonly identified as being at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) from patient handling and from providing direct care during the course of a patient's stay in the hospital. However, the pattern of occurrence of WMSDs and its relationship with ergonomic hazards among health care professionals has not been widely reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of WMSDs and its relationship with ergonomic hazard among health care professional who work in a Teaching Hospital in North Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among Dentists, Nurses, Physicians and physiotherapists working at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Different combinations of validated and standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data on pattern of WMSDs and ergonomic hazards among the health care professionals. Descriptive (mean, standard deviation and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis) statistics were used to analyse data. Alpha level was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 151 of 162 questionnaires were completed and returned and used for data analysis. The patterns of WMSDs showed higher occurrence among nurses (84.5%) and physiotherapists (83.3%) than physicians (25.3%) and dentist (45.4%). Low back pain was the most complaint (71.6%) among health care professionals followed by shoulder (46.8%) and then neck (42.2%). The upper back (14.7%) and the elbow (8.3%) were the less affected. Prolonged sitting and standing and working in an awkward posture were most common ergonomic hazards among participants. Multiple regression analysis reported statistically significant relationship between all areas of WMSDs and ergonomic hazards identified (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Occurrence of WMSDs among health care professionals was much higher among physiotherapist and nurses than physicians and dentists. Lower back, neck and shoulder were the three most reported WMSDs areas. Work-related ergonomic hazards showed relationship with WMSDs.
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Changes in stress index, blood antioxidants and lipid profile between trained and untrained young female adults during treadmill exercise test: A comparative study
Awobajo Funmileyi Olubajo, Olawale Olajide Ayinla, Agiode Margaret, Adegoke Olufeyisipe Adefunke
January-June 2015, 3(1):1-7
Background: Having regular exercise has been linked to healthy living. However, exercise is also a stressor. How the body maintain homeostasis in the phase of changing blood chemistry during exercise has been the subject of many discussions. Aim: This study investigated the changes in blood pressure parameters, changes in blood glucose, cortisol, lipids, testosterone and blood free radicals, in exercise-trained young female adults and those living a sedentary lifestyle during a treadmill exercise test. Materials and Methods: Trained and untrained-participants were recruited for this study using predetermined criteria. Basal parameters such as height waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose, lipid profile as well as antioxidant status were measured prior to and immediately after treadmill exercise test. Results: The results showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in plasma level of glutathione (trained 0.040 ± 0.006, untrained 0.088 ± 0.035 ΅mol/ml), catalase (trained 0.909 ± 0.057, untrained 1.079 ± 0.024 mg/ml), malondialdehyde (MDA) (trained 0.062 ± 0.012, untrained 0.088 ± 0.011 nmol/ml), cardiac risk index (trained 1.96 ± 0.19, untrained 5.88 ± 0.33) and testosterone cholesterol ratio (TCR) (trained 0.40 ± 0.02, untrained 0.50 ± 0.04 × 10−2 ) in trained-participants compared to untrained-participants. Post-exercise level of superoxide dismutase (before-trained, 0.116 ± 0.005 after-trained, 0.093 ± 0.014 mg/ml) and MDA (before exercise 0.067 ± 0.007, after exercise 0.062 ± 0.012 nmol/ml) were also significantly reduced in trained-participants compared with the pre-exercise level in the same group unlike what was obtained in untrained-participants. A significant decreased pre-exercise test level of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and ratio of LDL to high density lipoprotein (HDL) was recorded in trained compared to untrained-participants. Post-exercise test level of LDL, TC/HDL, LDL/HDL ratios were all significantly lowered in trained-participants compared with the untrained-participants. Conclusion: Involvement of young female adults in exercise training promotes body antioxidant response system and also reduced the TCR during treadmill exercise test compared to untrained young female adults living a sedentary lifestyle. Prior involvement in exercise training also promoted healthy blood lipid and lipoprotein profile in this group of participants compared to the untrained-participants.
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Tooth transposition: Report of three cases and literature review
NB Nagaveni, NB Radhika, Aditya Kumar, Meghna Bajaj, P Poornima
January-June 2015, 3(1):52-56
Tooth transposition is a relatively rare developmental anomaly of the teeth characterized by a positional interchange of a permanent tooth leading to distortion in the alignment of the affected segment, a midline shift, and malocclusion of the teeth. In the general population, the prevalence of this anomaly has been reported to be below 1% in most investigations. This condition is frequently observed in the maxillary arch and most commonly involves the canine tooth. Investigations in three Indian patients revealed different variants of tooth transpositions all occurring in the maxilla. The present article reports these different cases of transpositions associated with other dental anomalies.
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Single rooted, single canalled mandibular first molar in association with multiple anomalies: Report of a rarest case with literature review
NB Nagaveni, M Manoharan, Sneha Yadav, P Poornima
January-June 2015, 3(1):59-63
Knowledge on variations in roots and canal morphology of teeth is very important for successful endodontic treatment. Most of the times, permanent mandibular first molar (PMFM) usually have two roots one mesial and one distal with three root canals. Although variations in root and canals of this tooth have been extensively discussed in the endodontic literature, existence of a single root with a single canal is not well-documented. The aim of this report is to present an unusual anatomy of the PMFM having a single root and single canal along with other peculiar multiple anomalies such as tooth agenesis, single-rooted maxillary first molars and three rooted primary mandibular second molar in the same patient.
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Oral health-related quality of life in non-surgical treatment of mandibular fractures: A pilot study
Kevin U Omeje, Akinwanle A Efunkoya, Adetokunbo R Adebola, Otasowie D Osunde
January-June 2015, 3(1):8-13
Background: Absence of surgical stress and the limitations associated with maxillo-mandibular fixation have been identified as advantages with non-surgical management of mandibular fractures where indicated. This treatment modality entails close observation, feeding on soft diet, use of analgesics and antibiotics alongside warm saline mouth rinses. This study serves as a pilot to evaluate oral health-related quality of life (QoL) for patients with mandibular fractures who were managed non-surgically in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Patients and Methods: A total of 153 patients were evaluated prospectively over the space of 1 year from which 10 patients met the selection criteria for non-surgical treatment of mandibular fractures. Evaluation at presentation was done using General Oral Health Assessment Index questionnaire. The questionnaire was subsequently completed during reviews at day 1, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks, respectively. Results: There was acceptable healing of all the fractures with a significantly improved mean QoL outcome from 41.42 ± 1.14 at presentation to 59.90 ± 2.00 at 8 weeks review. Conclusion: Although very few patients meet the criteria for non-surgical treatment of mandibular fractures, it is an acceptable treatment option in patients with fractures of the mandible. This form of treatment in such selected cases results in satisfactory fracture healing and acceptable QoL to the patient.
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Knowledge and attitude of parents toward oxygen therapy and nasogastric tube feeding in tertiary health centers in Nigeria
Ibrahim Aliyu, Chika Duru, Mohammed Abdulsalam, Lawal O Teslim
January-June 2015, 3(1):47-51
Background: Feeding sick children by mouth at times may be difficult. Therefore, alternative methods such as nasogastric tube feeding may come handy. Similarly, oxygen therapy is life saving; however, there are concerns of parental refusal of these treatments. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the level of acceptance of these treatments and factors responsible for treatment refusal if any. Materials and Methods: This study was cross-sectional and 202 mothers whose children were on or had nasogastric tube feeding and oxygen therapy were recruited. Results: Most of the respondents' accepted nasogastric tube feeding and oxygen administration on their children despite the fact that most were not counseled (66.8% and 61.4%, respectively). The most common reason for declining nasogastric tube feeding was the belief that it may occlude the airway while those who declined oxygen therapy was because they believed it may result in death. Most of those that accepted nasogastric tube feeding also accepted oxygen therapy (X 2 = 32.031, df = 1, P = 0.00). The educational status of the respondents had no significant relationship with acceptance of nasogastric tube feeding (X 2 = 3.245, df = 3, P = 0.36) and also oxygen therapy (X 2 = 0.487, df = 3, P = 0.92). Furthermore, their age and number of children had no influence on their decision on acceptance of nasogastric tube feeding or oxygen therapy. Similarly, ethnicity and occupational status had no statistically significant relationship on acceptance of oxygen or nasogastric tube feeding. Conclusion: The acceptance of nasogastric tube feeding and oxygen therapy is very encouraging and was not affected by maternal age, ethnicity, or educational qualification.
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Unusual morphology of primary mandibular first molar
P Poornima, Sidhant Pathak, NB Nagaveni, KB Roopa
January-June 2015, 3(1):57-58
A thorough knowledge of tooth morphology and its clinical variations is necessary for successful restorative and endodontic treatment. Primary mandibular first molars have numerous variations in its anatomy and thus poses a huge challenge for a pedodontist. This case report highlights a rare anatomical configuration of primary mandibular first molar and points out the importance of thorough clinical and radiographical examination before any treatment.
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Knowledge and attitude of nurses in North-Western Nigeria toward teething
Aliyu Ibrahim, Teslim O Lawal, Adewale Ashimi
January-June 2015, 3(1):14-17
Background: Community health workers, nurses, and doctors have misconception on teething, resulting in inappropriate medical advice and unnecessary prescriptions. Hence, sound knowledge of the teething process is imperative for proper parental education. This study aims to determine the knowledge and attitude of nurses in north-west Nigeria toward teething. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study of nurses conveniently sampled in two health facilities in Nigeria. Results: Three hundred and twenty-four nurses were involved comprising 230 (71%) females and 94 (29%) males. Two hundred and eighty-five (88.0%) of the respondents believed teething was associated with systemic symptoms; however, most of the respondents would advice for further medical care for symptoms they attributed to teething. Fever was the most prevalent symptom believed to be associated with teething, followed by loss of appetite and loose stools. However, their gender (X 2 = 0.956, df = 2, P = 0.62), age (X 2 = 0.551, df = 6, P = 0.99), number of years post qualification (X 2 = 6.258, df = 4, P = 0.181), and number of children (X 2 = 6.406, df = 4, P = 0.17) had no relationship with their perception toward teething symptoms. Two hundred and eighty (86.4%) of the respondents will give prescription for teething symptoms and teething powder was the most common teething drug prescribed. Eighty percent of the respondents believed teething remedies are effective. Conclusion: Teething myths are common among nurses in north-western Nigeria; therefore, efforts should be made to eradicate these through effective continuous medical education programs.
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Accuracy of Root ZX apex locator in primary teeth with different root canal irrigants: An in vivo study
P Poornima, Gaurav Ramchandani, IE Neena, NM Roshan, R Basavanna, NB Nagaveni
January-June 2015, 3(1):24-28
Objective: The aim of this in vivo study was to determine the accuracy of 3 rd generation apex locator (Root ZX) in determining the canal length in primary teeth with normal saline and 0.12% chlorhexidine as root canal irrigants. Study Design: A total of 36 primary anterior teeth with minimum of 2/3 rd root lengths (indicated for extraction) were selected for this study. Working length (WL) was measured in dry, saline and chlorhexidine mode respectively and the standardized WL was measured using stereomicroscope under ×30. The data were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test using SPSS software version 19 (IBM Company). The critical value for statistical significance was 5%. Results : For teeth without root resorption, the accuracy of Root ZX was 83% in dry mode and 92% in saline and chlorhexidine mode. For root canals with resorption the accuracy of Root ZX was 67% in dry mode and 83% in saline and chlorhexidine mode within ± 1 mm. However these figures decreased to 17%, 58% and 75% without resorption and 0%, 17% and 50% with resorption respectively for within ± 0.5. No significant differences were detected between the three different modes with the tolerance ± 1 mm under without resorption. However, significant difference was found without resorption as well as with resorption under tolerance ± 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The study concluded that Root ZX electronic Root apex locator is accurate with tolerance ± 1 mm in determining the root canal length in primary teeth without root resorption under different root canal irrigants that is, saline and chlorhexidine.
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Genetic diversity between two Igbo men from Owerri senatorial province as determined by autosomal short tandem repeats, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats and mitochondrial DNA typing methods
Anukam Kingsley Chidozie, Aliche Isaac
January-June 2015, 3(1):29-35
Background: Human identification has recently been optimized following the completion of human genome sequence, by using DNA markers that exhibit the highest possible variation. However, in developing countries such as Nigeria, the application of DNA typing for identification of human subjects either for forensic or medical purposes is inadequate due to the absence of national forensic DNA laboratories and lack of the legislative framework. Materials and Methods: In this study, two male subjects of Igbo origin provided their blood, hair and buccal samples for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted, purified, quantified with human quantifiler™ polymerase chain reaction reaction mix. Hyper-variable segment 1 of the D-loop mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA HVS-1) was amplified, purified and fragments sequenced and analyzed with ABI Genetic Analyzer. A multiplex AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit amplified 15 STR plus amelogenin loci of the nuclear DNA and 16 STR of the Y-chromosome. GeneMapper ID software version 3.2 was used for the analysis of autosomal and Y-chromosome AmpFlSTR. Results: Result show that the mtDNA lineage of UMBACK subject belongs to L3e2b while ELAMBIA is assigned to L3f1b1 haplogroup. Based on the allelic frequency database, both subjects displayed uniqueness in random match probability for the autosomal allelic short-tandem repeat (STR). Based upon a mutation rate of 0.003 for Y-DNA STR markers, the two individuals most likely shared a common paternal ancestor 96 generations ago. Both subjects were assigned to E1b1a haplogroup with a 100% probability, which is consistent with the haplogroup associated with Igbo people in Nigeria. Conclusion: As expected, well-established forensic genetic tools comprising of mtDNA, autosomal and Y-chromsomomal STR typing methods were all found to distinguish two selected Nigerian Igbo individuals with a very high power of discrimination.
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Multidisciplinary approach to improving concordance in diagnosis of odontogenic tumors
Kelvin U Omeje, Akinfenwa T Atanda, Ibiyinka O Amole, Akinwale A Efunkoya, Otasowie D Osunde, Benjamin I Akhiwu, Abubakar M Tabari
January-June 2015, 3(1):36-40
Background: The diagnosis of benign odontogenic tumors (BOTs) may occasionally be fraught with problems. Diagnosis of BOTs includes joint consideration of clinical features observed, appearance on radiographs and histopathologic slides. Aim: The aim of this study therefore is to ascertain the level of concordance between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnoses of surgically treated BOT and highlight modalities that improve it. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all cases with postoperative histopathological reports of BOT seen at the Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from January, 2012 to December, 2013 was done. Demographic information, clinical, radiological (plain radiographs), preoperative incisional biopsy and postoperative excisional biopsy results were collated. The preoperative incisional biopsy and postoperative excisional biopsy results were analyzed for concordance. Results: Thirty-three cases of BOT were reviewed (male:female = 1.4:1). Age ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean = 32 ± 18.1 years). An overall concordance of 78.8% was observed between preoperative and postoperative biopsy results. Twenty-eight histology request cards were reviewed and this showed that 14.3% of specimens were <1 cm while complete clinical information was provided in 50% of cases. Conclusion: The interaction between the pathologist and other relevant specialties that are required for effective management of BOT may be best nurtured when clinico-pathologic conferences are made a routine practice.
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Influence of lumbar disk herniation on chronaxie and rheobase in patients with chronic low back pain
Sokunbi Ganiyu, Galadima Muritala Nasir, Gambo Hassan Bukar, Aliyu Abubakar
January-June 2015, 3(1):41-46
Background: In patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and lumbar disk herniation, strength-duration curve (SDC) electrodiagnostic testing is one of the means of establishing whether or not radiculopathy is present. It appears that SDC is not used as often as it should be which may be due to lack of appreciation of its possible uses or its proven accuracy. Aim: The aim was to investigate the influence of lumbar disk herniation on rheobase and chronaxie in patients with LBP. Materials and Methods: The SDC, rheobase, and chronaxie in 10 LBP patients with radiculopathy due to lumbar disk herniation and 10 healthy controls were obtained following stimulation of tibialis anterior and peroneus muscles. Results: Tibialis anterior and peroneus muscles in both group of participants (i.e., LBP patients and healthy control) showed normal pattern typical of an innervated muscle. The rheobase and chronaxie values for tibialis anterior were 11.8 ± 1.93 mA and 0.54 ± 0.014 ms, respectively, in LBP patients and 7.4 ± 0.84 mA and 0.24 ± 0.14 ms, respectively, in control subjects. The rheobase and chronaxie values for peroneus muscles were 12.8 ± 2.93 mA and 0.41 ± 0.07 ms, respectively, in LBP patients and 7.6 ± 1.71 mA and 0.16 ± 0.01 ms, respectively, control subjects. Rheobase and chronaxie were significantly higher in LBP patients with radiculopathy than control (P < 0.00). Conclusion: SDC electrodiagnostic testing could be used to compliment normal procedure of assessment of LBP patients with disk herniation.
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