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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| January-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 30, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of methanolic seed extract of Telfairia occidentalis on blood coagulation in Albino rats
Nubila Thomas, Ukaejiofo Okem Ernest, Nubila Imelda Nkoyo, Shu Neba Elvis, Okwuosa U Chukwubuzor, Ukaejiofo C Ayodele, Iyare E Eghosa, Ogbuta Osule Ifeyinwa
January-December 2013, 1(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123943  
Background: Medicinal plants have played a key role in the world healthcare with about 80% of Africans depending on phytomedicine, which has shown a wide range of uses in the treatment of diseases especially priority diseases of Africa. The objective of this study was to investigate the sub-acute effects of methanolic seed extracts Telfairia Occidentalis on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and platelet values in Albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty rats were equally divided into groups A (control), B, C, D, and E (test). Groups B, C, D, and E were gavaged with 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of the extract for 9 days. Four milliliters of venous blood was collected from each animal and 2 ml delivered into 0.25 ml tri-sodium citrate and K 3 ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant bottles for the determination of PT, APTT, and platelet values, respectively. Results: APTT showed a statistically significant increase in groups D (P < 0.01) and E (P < 0.05) when compared with the control on Day 3. Platelet value demonstrated a time-dependent statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion. T. occidentalis demonstrated sub-acute inhibitory effects on coagulation.
  3 6,679 525
Increased bile flow rate and altered composition of bile induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) in rats
Ofem E Ofem, Daniel E Ikpi, Nsima M Essien
January-December 2013, 1(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123958  
Background: Azadirachta indica (neem) is an ever green tropical plant with ethno-medicinal uses; it is a very potent anti-malaria plant. There is a paucity of the scientific literature on the impact of A. indica on the biliary flow rate and bile composition, considering that alterations in bile composition may lead to gall stone. Aim: This study therefore sought to elucidate the impact of A. indica leaves extract on biliary flow rate and bile composition in rats. Materials And Methods: Eighteen (18) albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each and fed on normal rat chow and/or 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg body weight of A. indica extract for 21 days. Results: The rate of bile secretion is in the control, low dose (LD) and high dose (HD) A. indica extract treated rats was 3.0 ± 0.02 ml/h, 5.60 ± 0.46 ml/h and 5.38 ± 0.32 ml/h respectively, showing a significant (P < 0.001) increase in LD and HD compared with control. Na + concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the HD extract recipients compared with control. LDs of the extract increased K + significantly (P < 0.001) compared with control and HD. HDs of the extract increased Cl− concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared with LD. HCO3 did not alter significantly among these groups. LDs of the extract significantly (P < 0.01) increased total cholesterol, total and unconjugated bilirubin concentrations, HDs reduced it. Conclusion: Hence, A. indica leaves extract increases bile flow rate, LDs of the extract increases cholesterol and bilirubin saturations while HDs reduces it.
  3 7,555 414
Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) stem bark in streptozotocin induced diabetes in mice
Pradeep Singh, RL Khosa, Garima Mishra
January-December 2013, 1(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123961  
Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of bark of Cedrus deodara. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the Cedrus deodara (EECD) at dose levels of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to the streptozotocin induced diabetes mice. The biochemical parameters, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), cholesterol and triglycerides were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The EECD exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity and also lowers the biochemical parameters like SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol and triglycerides. The ethanolic extract at dose level of 500 mg/kg was found to be more potent than 250 mg/kg in lowering the blood glucose level, almost near to the effect of the standard drug. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications.
  3 4,085 367
Frequency distribution of hemoglobin variants among Yorubas in Ibadan, south western Nigeria: A pilot study
Thomas Nubila, Ernest Okem Ukaejiofo, Nkoyo Imelda Nubila, Rahman Azeez
January-December 2013, 1(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123962  
Background: Inherited disorders of hemoglobin are the most common gene disorders worldwide. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency distribution of hemoglobin variants among the Yorubas residing in Ibadan. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and thirty one subjects comprising 184 males and 347 females, of age 1-70 years, were enrolled in the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the University College Hospital and a duly signed informed consent was obtained from each subject. Two milliliters of venous blood was aseptically collected from each participant for the determination of hemoglobin genotype, using the standard hematology method. Results: Hemoglobin HbAA recorded the highest frequency distribution (65.3%). This was followed by hemoglobin variant HbAS (24.1%), abnormal hemoglobin variant HbSS (5.5%), HbAC (4%), and HbSC (1.1%), (P > 0.05). The female subjects revealed higher frequency distributions of AA, AS, SS, and SC, while the male demonstrated higher frequencies in AC and SC only. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Yoruba indigenes residing in Ibadan have a high frequency distribution of HbAA and a future reduction in the HbSS disease in the populace is possible.
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Evaluation of memory status following administration of depo-provera in female wistar rats
Oyekunle Akinloye Olanrewaju, MA Alabi, Okojie Akhabue Kenneth
January-December 2013, 1(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123957  
Background: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is the most commonly used progestin component of hormone therapy (HT). In vitro, MPA negatively impacts markers of neuronal health and exacerbates experimentally induced neurotoxicity. There is in vitro evidence that these factors are driven by GABAergic and neurotrophic systems. Whether these effects translate to a negative impact on brain function has not been tested in vivo, clinically or preclinically. Aim: The goal of the present study was to determine whether MPA exerts detrimental effects on cognitive function in actively reproducing rats using Y-maze apparatus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four female rats were randomly selected into three groups. Control group, Low dose (100 mg/1 ml MPA) group, and High dose (200 mg/1 ml MPA) group, respectively. Dose was delivered by intramuscular injection for the period of 3 weeks. Result: Intramuscular administration of MPA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in memory and locomotion activities of the female wistar rats (P < 0.05). Discussion: These findings suggest that MPA, the most commonly used progestin in HT, is detrimental to learning and two types of memory, and possibly modulates the GABAergic system in cognitive brain regions, in actively reproducing rats. These findings, combined with in vitro evidence that MPA is detrimental to neuronal health, indicates that MPA has negative effects for brain health and function. Conclusion: Therefore, MPA despite being effective in modulating hormonal interaction to prevent conception in actively reproducing females, learning and memory depression could be one of its adverse effects.
  2 4,070 259
Evaluation of neurobehavioral characteristics in actively lactating and nonlactating Wistar rats
Akinloye Olanrewaju Oyekunle, Goke Francis Ibironke, Yosola Omotoso, Temitope Samson Adu
January-December 2013, 1(1):28-32
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123960  
Background : The processes of reproduction place a huge responsibility on the brain, hence the behavioral modulations observed in both the mother and the pups during this process owing to hormonal activities. Among such hormones are prolactin and oxytocin, which are majorly elaborated during lactation from the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamic nuclei. Recent in vivo data have implicated the receptors for these hormones in certain brain areas concerned with behavioral modulation. Aim : This study was therefore carried out to support existing documentation on the role of prolactin and oxytocin in neurobehavioral modulation. Materials and Methods : A total of 20 female Wistar rats were used for the study, 10 actively lactating and 10 nonpregnant, nonlactating. Neurobehavioral characteristics were evaluated in both groups using Open field and Hole-board tests. Results : In the Open field test, the result showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in locomotor activity as well as rearing and grooming frequencies of lactating rats when compared with nonlactating rats. Likewise there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of head dips in lactating rats when compared with nonlactating rats. Discussion : Increased locomotor and exploratory behaviors exhibited by lactating animals is an indication of fearlessness and reduced anxiety while reduced locomotor and exploratory behaviors in nonlactating rats indicated fear and higher level of anxiety also lactating animals exhibited high level of head-dipping, which was indicative of low anxiety-like state while the nonlactating animals exhibited reduced head-dipping which was indicative of high anxiety-like state. Conclusion: The authors therefore suggest that, the behavioral deficit observed in nonlactating, nonpregnant group could be due to the reduced plasma concentration of hormones responsible for the process of lactation (prolactin and oxytocin).
  1 3,782 264
REVIEW ARTICLE
Management of frontal sinus fractures: A review of the literature
Okezie O Kanu, Olutayo James, Olufemi O Bankole, Wasiu L Adeyemo
January-December 2013, 1(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123939  
Aim: The aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the clinical anatomy of the frontal sinus as it relates to its implication in frontal sinus fractures (FSFs), as well as review the contemporary opinions on the management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A computerized literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted for publications on the clinical anatomy and management of FSFs. Search phrases were "frontal sinus" combined with "management", "treatment", and "anatomy". The Boolean operator 'AND' was used to narrow the searches. Result: FSFs account for 5-15% of all maxillofacial injuries and are associated with 32% of panfacial and maxillary injuries. The FSFs may result from high-velocity impacts, such as motor vehicle accidents and assaults; blunt or penetrating force. The potential for intracranial injuries, esthetic deformities, and late mucocele formation is high. The treatment goals of FSFs are an accurate diagnosis, avoidance of short- and long-term complications, return of normal sinus function, and re-establishment of the premorbid facial contour. Recently, several treatment protocol with greater emphasis on the nasofrontal outflow tract (NFOT) injury are described in the literature, however, controversies still abound on effectiveness of these protocols in reducing the attending complications. Conclusion: The management of FSFs presents a unique and challenging problem for the contemporary surgeons. A clear understanding of corrective techniques is essential when approaching these challenging injuries. Each treatment method has its advocates, and controversies still abound regarding indications, applications, and ultimate success in given situations.
  1 6,355 2,175
CASE REPORTS
Carvajal syndrome: A variant of Naxos disease in two Saudi siblings
Yusuf Parvez, Abdul Aziz Al-Hassan
January-December 2013, 1(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123964  
Naxos disease is a recessively inherited condition characterized by woolly hair, palmoplantar keratosis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A variant of this predominantly involving left ventricle has been termed as Carvajal Syndrome. We report two cases in a Saudi family admitted in our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
  - 4,000 234
Nonsyndromic hypohyperdontia: Report of a case
Santanu Mukhopadhyay, Bidyut Chakraborty, Pinaki Roy
January-December 2013, 1(1):50-52
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123965  
Simultaneous occurrence of supernumerary teeth and hypodontia is rare. Both represent numerical alteration of human dentition. Hypohyperdontia appears to be more common in certain syndromes like cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, Down syndrome, etc. In the general population, its prevalence is rare. Teeth most commonly affected by hypohyperdontia are maxillary and mandibular mesiodens, second premolars mandibular central incisors and maxillary lateral incisors. Hypohyperdontia in the same arch is very rare. Here we described a case of a 12-year-old girl with hypohyperdontia. Radiographic examination revealed that she had mesiodens and agenesis of a maxillary lateral incisor and all four third molars.
  - 3,907 246
Protagonist role of oral atropine in the subacute phase of organophosphate poisoning
Sanjay Sharma, Rahul Chauhan, KN Venkateshwara Prasad, CD Dayanand, Pradeep Kumar Vegi
January-December 2013, 1(1):53-54
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123966  
Organophosphates (OPs) are widely used as insecticides. Accidental OP poisoning is reported world over. These compounds inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase within the peripheral and central nervous system by phosphorylation of its esteratic site. The resultant accumulation of acetylcholine at the cholinergic receptor sites, leads to signs of cholinergic toxicity. Accidental OP ingestion has rarely been reported in young toddlers. We report a case of acute OP poisoning (dichlorvos) in an 18-month-old boy with special reference to use of oral atropine treatment in subacute phase.
  - 3,507 239
EDITORIAL
Nigerian journal of experimental and clinical biosciences: Created to redefine the art of scientific publishing
Eghosa Edorisiagbon Iyare
January-December 2013, 1(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123936  
  - 3,867 3,569
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Subacute effect of Vernonia amygdalina methanolic crude leaf extract on the hematological profile in albino Wistar rats
Thomas Nubila, Nkoyo Imelda Nubila, Ayodele Ukaejiofo, Elvis Neba Shu, Chukwubuzor U Okwuosa, Chioli Pascal Chijioke, Princess Orji
January-December 2013, 1(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123963  
Background: Vernonia amygdalina is among one of the most used medicinal plants with a higher safety and efficacy in managing a wide array of medical ailments. The objective of this study is to evaluate the subacute effects of the methanolic crude leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the hematological profile in Albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Albino rats were used for the study. They were equally grouped into five groups: A (control), B, C, D, and E groups. The test (B, C, D, and E) groups were gavaged with doses (10, 15, 25, and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively) of Vernonia amygdalina leaf methanolic extract once daily, for nine days. Two milliliters of blood was collected from two animals each from each group on days three, six, and nine, for the determination of the hematological profile using a hematology analyzer. Results: Mean cell hemoglobin mean value showed a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in group C (15 mg/kg body weight). Similarly, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) was recorded in group E (40 mg/kg body weight) on day three, when compared with the control group A (untreated). However, only the mean value of the platelet count revealed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in group D (25 mg/kg body weight) on day six, when compared with the control. Conclusion: The subacute administration of Vernonia amygdalina methanolic crude leaf extract does not possess hematopoietic activities.
  - 4,126 356
Methanolic crude leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum reverses phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in albino wistar rats
Nubila Thomas, Ukaejiofo Ernest Okem, Nubila Nkoyo Imelda, Iyare Eborisiagbon Eghosa, Chijioke Chioli Pascal, Ukaejiofo Ayodele Chisolu, Shuneba Irene Lum, Agumbah Sochi Jethro
January-December 2013, 1(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2348-0149.123959  
Background: The therapeutic and culinary applications of Ocimum gratissimum leaf have been practiced in Central and West Africa for decades. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the haematinic and haemopoietic activities of phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in Albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four (24) Albino wistar rats were grouped into four (A, B, C and D) with six rats per cage. Groups B, C and D served as the test groups, while group A was the control. The test groups were gavaged with graded doses (4, 8 and 12mg/kg body weight respectively) of Ocimum gratissimum methanolic crude leaf extract once daily for 9 days. Two (2) mls of venous blood was collected from the ocular plexus from each animal into tripotassium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid anticoagulant bottle. This was used to determine complete blood count using automated haematology autoanalyzer (Sysmex KX-21N). Results: Red blood cell (RBC) mean value recorded a dose and duration-related statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in group D on day 3. However, there was statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in the RBC indices. In addition, total white blood cell (WBC) recorded a marginal increase in the mean values throughout the study period though not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Furthermore, lymphocyte recorded both dose and duration-related statistically significant increase (P < 0.01). Conclusion: From the result of this study, it can be concluded that the methanolic crude leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum possesses both haemopoetic and haematinic potentials which are dose and duration-related.
  - 5,230 443
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