Indian Journal of Research in Homeopathy

LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2014  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 67--68

Prevalence of poor glycemic control among Nigerian female diabetics


Ibrahim Abdul Olayemi1, Favour Osazuwa2,  
1 Department of Chemical Pathology, Nena Hospitals Limited, Lugbe, Abuja; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Laboratory, Lily Hospitals Limited, Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Favour Osazuwa
Department of Laboratory, Lily Hospitals Limited, Warri, Delta State
Nigeria




How to cite this article:
Olayemi IA, Osazuwa F. Prevalence of poor glycemic control among Nigerian female diabetics.Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2014;2:67-68


How to cite this URL:
Olayemi IA, Osazuwa F. Prevalence of poor glycemic control among Nigerian female diabetics. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Dec 7 ];2:67-68
Available from: https://www.njecbonline.org/text.asp?2014/2/1/67/135734


Full Text

Dear Sir,

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major metabolic disease world-wide. [1] An estimated 347 million people have diabetes world-wide according to the World Health Organization (WHO) by the year 2011. [2] Country wide prevalence of diabetes in Nigeria has also been estimated at 8.5% by the year 2011. [2] Scientific evidence suggests that many of the long-term complications of diabetes, especially the micro vascular complications, result from many years of hyperglycemia (elevated levels of glucose in the blood). [2] Good glycemic control, in the sense of a "target" for treatment, has become an important goal of diabetes care, although recent research opines that the complications of diabetes may be caused by genetic factors. [3] Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (HbA1c > 7.0%) levels is now used as a significant indicator and marker of poor glycemic control, which include prevalent retinopathy and nephropathy among persons with diabetes, [4] because blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the day and glucose records are imperfect indicators of these changes, HbA1c is used as a proxy measure of long-term glycemic control in research trials and clinical care of people with diabetes. [3] This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of poor glycemic control among Nigerian women living with diabetes attending a multispecialty clinic in Abuja, Nigeria.

This cross-sectional descriptive study included 50 non-pregnant female DM patients attending the diabetes clinic of Nena Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. 25 sex and age matched non-diabetic apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Patients already known to have diabetes were used for this study; they were diagnosed as diabetic using the WHO criteria. [4] Ethical approval was received from Nena Hospital Ethical Committee before commencement of this study. A total volume of 5 ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically into lithium heparin bottle and samples were then securely spun and analyzed within 5 h of collection. HbA1c was quantified spectrophotometrically using HbA1c test kits (Agappe diagnostics, Kerala, India). Briefly, hemolysate was prepared from heparin anticoagulant whole blood samples. The HbA1c fraction were then specifically eluted after washing away the HbA1a+b fraction and quantified by direct photometric reading at 415 nm. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c >7.0% as recommended by the American Diabetes Association. [5] Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Means and standard deviations of HbA1c values among test and control subjects were compared and were said to be significant when P <0.05. The mean age of the study participants was 47 ± 7.6 years.

The mean HbA1c value among test subjects was 7.9 ± 2.4% and was significantly higher than in the control group 4.5 ± 1.8% (P < 0.001). Overall prevalence of poor glycemic control was 19 (38.0%) among the diabetic women studied. The finding of this study is comparable to 46.0% in Benin city, [6] but differs from previous studies from other part of Nigeria with much higher prevalence of poor glycemic control. [7],[8] The causes of poor glycemic control are multifactorial; ranging from poor concordance to medications, insulin refusal, insulin therapy, side-effects, engagement of poor concordance life-style, infrequent attendance at clinic, occupational refusal of insulin, mental and psychosocial health problems etc. [9] In conclusion; there is a general trend of high percentage of poor glycemic control among DM patients in Nigeria, the monitoring of glucose management by timed measurement of HbA1c and providing adequate medical guidance to DM patients on treatment is however emphasized.

References

1Pollex RL, Hegele RA. Genetic determinants of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2006;3:482-9.
2World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Non Communicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
3Fowler MJ. Micro vascular and macro vascular complications of diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2008;26:77-82.
4Buell C, Kermah D, Davidson MB. Utility of A1C for diabetes screening in the 1999 2004 NHANES population. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2233-5.
5World Health Organization. Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycemia: Report of a WHO/IDF Consultation. Geneva: WHO; 2006. p. 21.
6Executive summary: Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2009. Diabetes Care 2009;32 Suppl 1:S6-12.
7Unadike BC, Eregie A, Ohwovoriole AE. Glycaemic control amongst persons with diabetes mellitus in Benin City. Niger Med J 2010;51:164-6.
8Ngwogu KO, Mba IE, Ngwogu AC. Glycaemic control amongst diabetic mellitus patients in Umuahia Metroppolis, Abia State, Nigeria. Int J Basic Appl Inn Res 2012;1:98-104.
9Adejumo BI, Dimkpa D, Erhabor TA, Ewenighi CO, Uchunor GA, Odia SI. The incidence of anemia and the impact of poor glycaemic control in type-2 diabetic patients with renal insufficiency. J Biol Agric Healthc 2013;3:130-6.