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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 219-262

Online since Thursday, May 19, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Comparative effects of stretching exercises and core stability exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: A review of randomized clinical trial p. 219
Obinna Dickson Nwodo, Peter Olarewanju Ibikunle, Nnenna Linda Ogbonna, Chinenye Joy Eze, Godwin Uroko Ezeja
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_26_21  
Exercise is known to be beneficial in the management of chronic low back pain (LBP), especially in pain reduction and improving function. Core stability exercise (CSE) is fast becoming the foremost exercise in the management of LBP; however, it is presently undetermined whether CSEs produces more valuable effects than stretching exercises in the management of LBP. The study aimed to review the effectiveness of CSEs or stretching exercises in the management of chronic LBP. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was done using published articles. Multiple databases and specific journal websites were searched to obtained original researches published between 2000 and 2021 in which pain and disability were evaluated as outcomes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale and none of the included studies had scores of <9/10. Three studies met the criteria for this review. The included studies randomized participants into two different exercise groups. One out of the three studies showed benefits of CSE over stretching exercises for pain and disability. Another study showed ST exercise is more beneficial to CSE for pain and disability while the last study shows both CSE and ST exercises to be effective in pain and disability management. In conclusion compared to ST exercise, CSE is not more effective in pain reduction and improved physical function in individuals with LBP in the short term. However, no follow-up assessments were done postintervention.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The protective effect of vernonia amygdalina in lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats p. 227
Silvanus Olu Innih, Abraham Ehinomhen Ubhenin
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_29_21  
Introduction/Background: Inadvertent poisoning from indiscriminate use of lead acetate-containing agents has transformed into an issue of public health concern, most especially in developing countries, coupled with the paucity of potent antidotes. Aims: We investigated the protective effect of Vernonia amygdalina in lead acetate-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six animals each. Groups A and B were administered (daily) distilled water and lead acetate, respectively for 28 days. Groups C, D, and E received (daily) lead acetate at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract of V. amygdalina at doses of 100, 200, and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 28 days. Results: The results from the study showed that were significant (P < 0.05) increases in the levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium Na + and chloride Cl − in lead-intoxicated rats when compared to the control group. There was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (GPx) Uric acid, URA and reduced glutathione (GSH) as the consequences of lead acetate administration. The histograms of the rats intoxicated with lead acetate were characterized by tubular necrosis and a reduction in myeloid-erythroid cells. Treatment with aqueous extract of V. amygdalina at the doses of 100, 200, and 250 mg/kg body weight significant (P < 0.05) protected against these alterations. The dose of 250 mg/kg exhibited the highest protective activity. Conclusion: Results of the present study may suggest that V. amygdalina possess a potent phytochemical that could be standardized for use in kidney and other related oxidative damage diseases.
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Evaluation of the Ameliorative Roles of Vitamins A, C, and E on Alanine Aminotransferase Production in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Lead Nitrate p. 234
Patrick Ozovehe Samuel, FO Arimoro, AV Ayanwale, HL Mohammad
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_25_21  
Background: Pollutants from industrial and commercial usage of chemicals all over the world that usually lead to release of myriads of toxic pollutants such as lead call for concern. Aim and Objective: The effects of lead nitrate on the production of antioxidants such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Clarias gariepinus and how such effects can be ameliorated through administration of vitamins were investigated. Materials and Methods: C. gariepinus fingerlings (whose initial weight ranged from 3 to 11 g) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Pb (00, 26 mg/L, 44 mg/L, 61 mg/L, and 79 mg/L) with replicate in each case. 26 mg/L of the vitamins was administered across all bud. Fresh concentrations of both toxicant and vitamins were administered every 72 h for a period of 12 weeks every time the water medium was changed. The various treatments group include Pb (Pb only), PbVA (Pb + vitamin A), PbVC ((Pb + vitamin C), and PbVE (Pb + vitamin E) with T1-T4 and replicates in each case. Three samples of the fish were randomly selected and sacrificed from each aquarium tank every 2 weeks of the exposure period. The gills, kidneys, and liver were excised from these specimens and homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer. These were then assayed for ALT production levels in each case. The data generated were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: In samples exposed to Pb only group, the ALT production levels indicated that the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 87.20 ± 0.15 nM/mg, 65.76 ± 0.20 nM/mg, and 69.92 ± 0.05 nM/mg, respectively. Samples exposed to PbVA indicated that the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 77.12 ± 0.20 nM/mg, 84.75 ± 0.10 nM/mg, and 70.43 ± 0.24 nM/mg, respectively. Conclusions and Recommendation: In samples exposed to PbVC, the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 86.53 ± 0.05 nM/mg, 63.48 ± 0.15 nM/mg, and 66.53 ± 0.15 nM/mg, respectively. In samples exposed to PbVE, the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 73.82 ± 0.15 nM/mg, 78.05 ± 0.15 nM/mg, and 73.31 ± 0.05 nM/mg, respectively. The samples of the fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of the toxicant in the various treatments displayed varying levels of production of the enzyme with higher production levels mostly at higher concentrations of the toxicant. In the Pb only and PbVC groups, the liver of the samples produced the highest ALT, while the kidneys did same in the PbVA and PbVE groups. The high levels of production of the enzyme, especially in higher concentrations suggest physiological imbalances due to the presence of the toxicant.
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Effects of Zingiber officinale Aqueous Leaf Extract on Vincristine-Induced Kidney Damage in Adult Wistar Rats p. 245
Richard O Agbonluai Ehimigbai, Afokeoghene Eseoghene Akpobaro
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_35_21  
Background: Vincristine, although used as a chemotherapy drug, has been reported to induce nephrotoxicity, while Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant, possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antitumorigenic properties. Aim and Objectives: In this study, we examined the effects of Z. officinale against vincristine-induced kidney damage by analyzing renal function, enzymatic antioxidants, and renal tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats, weighing between 140 g and 185 g, were assigned into six groups of five animals each. Groups A, B, C, D, E, and F received 1 ml of distilled water, 200 mg/kg of Z. officinale aqueous extract, 1000 mg/kg of Z. officinale aqueous extract, 50 μg/kg of vincristine only, 200 mg/kg of Z. officinale aqueous extract and 50 μg/kg of vincristine, and 1000 mg/kg of Z. officinale aqueous extract and 50 μg/kg of vincristine, respectively. Administration of vincristine was by a 10-day intraperitoneal injection, while that of Z. officinale was by gavage, for a period of 28 days. Food and water were provided across all groups, ad libitum. Results: Vincristine significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of creatinine, urea, chloride, and malondialdehyde while having a reducing effect on the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The histology revealed that vincristine caused a distortion of the renal architecture. Conclusion: The administration of Z. officinale mitigated the aforementioned debilitating effects of vincristine.
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Antifibrotic potential of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) leaves extract on diethylstilbestrol-induced rat model of uterine fibroid p. 250
Esther Y Oyinloye, Mutiu A Alabi, Kofoworola Ajayi, Dolapo Ajose, Ayobola B Adeyemi, Emmanuel O Ajani
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_40_21  
Background: The increased prevalence of uterine fibroid (UF) and its life-threatening impact among women of reproductive age led to the development of this study. The study investigated the antifibrotic potential of Tetracarpidium conophorum aqueous extract on UF-induced rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four female Wistar rats, with an average weight of 200 g, were used for the study. The rats were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals each. UF was induced by oral administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and intramuscular injection of progesterone at dosages 1.35 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Group 1 was administered normal saline orally for 8 weeks. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with progesterone and a combination of DES and progesterone, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 were pretreated with 200 and 400 mg/kg T. conophorum extract, respectively, for 3 weeks before the administration of DES and progesterone for 5 weeks. Groups 6 and 7 were administered DES and progesterone for 5 weeks before being treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg T. conophorum extract, respectively, for 3 weeks. Group 8 was the self-recovery group-administered DES and progesterone for 5 weeks after which they were given normal saline orally for 3 weeks. Results: After the treatment period, the rats were euthanized, and blood was collected, while the uteruses were harvested. Co-administration of DES and progesterone produces UF conditions. However, pre- and post-treatment with 200 mg/kg of extract mitigated the effects that were induced by DES and progesterone, but no remarkable preventive and curative effects were observed with the higher dosage (400 mg/kg). There were a reduction of the serum prolactin level in the treatment groups and an increased serum progesterone level in the posttreatment group. Conclusion: The study has shown that T. conophorum has both preventive and curative effects on UF at low dosage (200 mg/kg).
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