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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2022
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-33

Online since Friday, July 1, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Glial fibrillary acid protein expression and behavioral changes in hippocampus following prenatal co-administration of ethyl acetate leaf fraction of Tamarindus Indica and aluminum chloride in wistar rats p. 1
Ibe Michael Usman, Samuel Sunday Adebisi, Sunday Abraham Musa, Ibrahim Abdullahi Iliya
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_34_21  
Background: The endowment of various plant parts with important phytochemicals needed in the management of human health breeds lots of hope. The present study investigated glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression and hippocampal behavioral changes following prenatal co-administration of ethyl acetate leaf fraction of Tamarindus indica (EATI) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in male Wistar rat pups. Methodology: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 4). Group 1 received distilled water, while the treatment Groups 2 to5 received 200 mg/kg of AlCl3, followed by 400 and 800 mg/kg EATI in Groups 3 and 4, respectively, and 300 mg/kg Vitamin E in Group 5. All administrations lasted for 14 days from prenatal day 7 till parturition. The male pups (n = 6) were curled for Morris water maze (MWM) from postnatal day (PoND) 16–20, then sacrificed humanely on PoND 21. The brain tissues were harvested for oxidative stress studies (OSS) and the demonstration of GFAP antibody. Result: The result of the MWM showed significantly high mean latency to locate the platform in Groups 2 and 5 when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The OSS revealed significantly higher superoxide dismutase concentration in Groups 4 and 5 compared to that observed in Group 2. The GFAP studies revealed significantly higher immunoreactivity scores in Group 2 when compared to every other group (P < 0.05) in the CA1 hippocampal region. Conclusion: EATI was associated with some protective potential during prenatal aluminum chloride exposure in Wistar rats.
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Quercetin improves mood-related behaviors in mice subjected to paradoxical sleeplessness p. 9
Anthony Taghogho Eduviere, Lily Oghenevovwero Otomewo, Onyekachukwu Glory Anyanwu, Favour Oghenekome Igari, Oghenefejiro Juliana Okorigba
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_41_21  
Context: Food supplements are a widely consumed class of pharmaceuticals. Quercetin (QCT) is a bioflavonoid with reported benefits in various disease conditions. Aims: The present study sought to evaluate the potential protective role of QCT against anxiety-like and antisocial behavior in mice exposed to persistent wakefulness. Settings and Design: The sleep deprivation protocol used in this research was the multiple platforms over the water model. Subjects and Methods: Thirty male albino mice were randomly divided into five groups, each consisting of six mice: Group 1 was considered the naive group; Group 2 was considered the model control. Groups 3 and 4 received QCT (25 and 50 mg/kg; p. o.) and Group 5 received astaxanthin (50 mg/kg; p. o.) in addition to being sleep-deprived respectively. The mice in groups 2–5 received their respective treatment for 7 days but were subjected to a 72 h sleep deprivation from day 4. On day 8, behavioral activities were monitored, and then, animals were sacrificed 1 h after the drug administration. Brain samples were subsequently collected for the biochemical and histopathological analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance. Results: The results indicate that persistent wakefulness-induced anxiety such as symptoms and depression-like behavior in mice. In addition, oxidative stress was significant in sleep-deprived group with an enhancement in activity of prooxidants. However, upon pre-treatment with QCT, such behaviors and suppression of antioxidant molecules were reversed. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present finding showed that QCT could attenuate the impairment of antioxidant enzymes, reduce anxiety, and depression-like behaviors caused by sleep deprivation in mice.
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Effect of formaldehyde exposure on some cardiovascular indices among morticians in Benin City Nigeria p. 15
Frederick Oseyomon Ebojele, Vincent Imagbovomwan Iyawe
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_42_21  
Introduction: The effect of formaldehyde exposure on some indices of cardiovascular function among morticians in Benin City was studied. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects were recruited for the study which included 10 nonmorticians and 40 morticians. Subjects were divided into five groups A, B, C, D, and E according to their duration (in years) of exposure to formaldehyde with ten subjects in each group. Group A served as the control (nonmorticians), whereas Groups B, C, D, and E served as the test groups with 0–5 years, 6–10 years, 11–20 years, and >20 years exposures, respectively. Anthropometric parameters were measured as well as some cardiovascular indices which include pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.0. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean analysis of variance was used to compare the means of test and control values, whereas post hoc test was done using Student‒Newman‒Keuls test and a P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Results showed significant increases in SBP, DBP, and MAP among Group E morticians. Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that prolonged exposure to formaldehyde could affect the cardiovascular health of morticians.
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Cord blood lipid profile at delivery and association with birth weight among term babies p. 19
Osaretin James Agbonlahor, Ishola Ayomide, Mathias Abiodun Emokpae
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_43_21  
Background: Abnormal birth weight is a leading risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality, abnormal lipid profile levels may be involved. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood lipid profile levels and neonatal birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Two hundred apparently healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinics a Specialist Hospital in Benin City were recruited into the study. Five (5 mL) milliliters of cord blood was collected from the umbilical vein into plain bottle. The serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined using spectrophotometric techniques. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated using Friedewald's equation, while anthropometric measurements were done using standard techniques. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The birth weight (2.34 ± 0.3 versus 3.47 ± 0.4; P < 0.01), head circumference (32.3 ± 1.3 versus 34.4 ± 2.8; P < 0.04), recumbent length (50.2 ± 0.5 versus 54.6 ± 0.2; P < 0.04), and Ponderal Index (2.14 ± 0.5 versus 24.5 ± 0.2; P < 0.02) were significantly lower in babies with small for gestational age (SGA) than appropriate gestational age. The total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in SGA than appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. Total cholesterol (r = 0.21; P < 0.004) and triglycerides (r = 0.31; P < 0.001) correlated positively with the weight of babies. Conclusion: AGA babies had significantly higher lipid profile levels compared to SGA babies.
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Ameliorative activities and safety of Moringa Oleifera oil and Nigella Sativa oil on diet-induced hyperlipidemic male wistar rats p. 24
Godwin Atufe, Oghenetega ThankGod Oweh, Ohunene Makoju Avidime, Ejiro Prosper Awhin, Quadri Olaide Nurudeen
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_1_22  
Background: Numerous medicinal plants have been explored as therapy for hyperlipidemia which could be induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Aims and Objectives: The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera oil and Nigella sativa oil and their safety on diet-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats were examined. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were distributed into six groups of five each. Group 1 was the control group while the other groups were fed with HFD. Groups 3–6 were treated using 1 ml/kg BW of M. oleifera oil, 0.5 ml/kg BW M. oleifera oil, 1 ml/kg BW N. sativa oil, and 0.5 ml/kg BW N. sativa oil, respectively, for 10 days. The plasma total and tissue cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were analyzed. Results: M. oleifera oil and N. sativa oil (1 ml/kg BW and 0.5 ml/kg BW) showed significant reduction at (P < 0.05) in total plasma cholesterol and lipid levels compared to the control group but had no significant effects on the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP. Conclusion: The study proved that M. oleifera and N. sativa oil ameliorate diet-induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats by reducing plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and increasing HDL levels and show no adverse effects on the activities of the liver enzymes.
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Association between thyroid hormones and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among Nigerians p. 29
Ayodele Ademola Adelakun, Roland Eghoghosoa Akhigbe, Lydia Oluwatoyin Ajayi, Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_2_22  
Background: A seemingly exciting link has been reported to exist between thyroid state and renal function, thus establishing a thyroid–renal axis. However, findings from studies aimed at evaluating this axis have not been consistent. Therefore, we hypothesized that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a surrogate of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), could be independently predicted by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3). Materials and Methods: We compared the serum concentrations of TSH, fT4, and fT3 in patients with CKD after classifying them into stage III, stage IV, or end-stage renal disease based on the National Kidney Foundation Classification Criteria. Results: Our results showed that the concentrations of TSH, fT4, and fT3 were comparable across the different stages of CKD. Findings from the study also indicated that thyroid hormones were not associated with CKD, nor were they predictors of CKD development. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that TSH, fT4, and fT3 are not effective risk factors that are independently associated with declined eGFR in patients with CKD. Our findings also revealed that these hormones are not useful tools in the early detection of CKD.
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