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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 133-217

Online since Tuesday, November 30, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Melatonin and Vitamin C modulate cassava diet-induced alteration in reproductive and thyroid functions Highly accessed article p. 133
Oloruntobi Oluwasegun Maliki, Abdullateef Isiaka Alagbonsi, Comfort Moyinoluwa Ibitoye, Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_9_21  
Background: Cyanide, present in cassava, causes adverse effects on the thyroid and male reproductive functions and its poisoning generates free radical and oxidative stress. Melatonin and Vitamin C are antioxidants that improve conditions associated with oxidative stress. Aims and objectives: We evaluated the effects of melatonin and/ or Vitamin C on body weight, thyroid functions, and reproductive parameters in cyanide-enriched cassava-fortified diet (CD)-treated rats and their possible mechanisms of actions. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): Group I – Control, Group II – Melatonin, Group III – Vitamin C, Group IV – CD, Group V – CD + Melatonin, and Group VI – CD + Melatonin + Vitamin C. The control received normal saline, while melatonin and Vitamin C groups were dosed orally at 15 mg/kg melatonin and 100 mg/kg Vitamin C, respectively, CD group was fed with 40% cassava-fortified diet only, while other groups received the combination of the treatments. Results: In CD-treated rats, the sperm parameters were not affected but sperm count was insignificantly increased by melatonin, while melatonin + Vitamin C significantly increased all semen parameters. Neither CD only nor co-administration with melatonin and/or Vitamin C affected plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone. The CD increased triiodothyronine (T3), but the increase was abolished by melatonin. Moreover, the CD increased thyroxine (T4), which was neither affected by melatonin alone nor its combination with Vitamin C. The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone were not different across all treatment groups. The CD increased the thiocyanate, which was ameliorated by melatonin but abolished by combination of melatonin and Vitamin C. The CD also decreased the total antioxidant capacity level, which was abolished by melatonin. The CD increased weight gain, thyroid hormone, and oxidative stress but had no effect on semen parameters and reproductive hormones. Conclusion: Melatonin and Vitamin C attenuate the effects of CD on weight, thyroid hormones, and oxidative stress.
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Mitoquinol mesylate ameliorates hematological aberration in cirrhotic-hepatocellular carcinogenic rats Highly accessed article p. 144
Lateef Adegboyega Sulaimon, Rahmat Adetutu Adisa, Fatimah Biade Abdulkareem
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_16_21  
Introduction: Hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy necessitate the need to develop agents that stimulate erythropoiesis and boost immune response in cancer. Aim: The present study investigated the effects of mitoquinol mesylate (MitoQ) on the hematological profile of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-induced cirrhotic-hepatocellular carcinogenic (HCC) rats. Materials and Methods: One hundred Wistar strain albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20) for the experimental period of 20 weeks. Groups A, B, and C received distilled water, 10 mg/kg each of DEN and MitoQ respectively. Animals in Group D were pretreated with 10 mg/kg MitoQ for a week followed by coadministration of 10 mg/kg each of MitoQ and DEN for 20 weeks, while Group E received 10 mg/kg DEN for 8 weeks and then coadministration of 10 mg/kg each of DEN and MitoQ till the end of 20th week. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12th, 16th, and 20th week. Blood samples were collected into labeled heparinized bottles for hematological analysis. Results: Administration of DEN significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of red blood cell (RBC) count and erythrocytes indices. These erythrogram parameters were continuously deranging from 6.86 ± 0.26 to 2.69 ± 0.01, from 37.40 ± 1.99 to 30.35 ± 0.57, from 12.16 ± 0.97 to 8.90 ± 0.37 in the levels of RBC, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin, respectively, with the progression of HCC from cirrhosis to advanced HCC in Wistar rats. Further, the levels of white blood cells (WBCs, 3.68 ± 0.08), granulocytes (1.30 ± 0.06), lymphocytes (0.63 ± 0.11), and platelets (440.00 ± 22.67) were significantly reduced in the DEN group compared to healthy control (4.46 ± 0.12, 2.14 ± 0.27, 1.70 ± 0.13, and 685.80 ± 15.48 in the levels of WBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, respectively) at the advanced HCC stage. Interestingly, MitoQ interventions significantly (P < 0.05) reversed alterations in hematological indices induced by DEN toxicity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MitoQ is safe and capable of normalizing hematological abnormalities associated with cirrhosis and HCC in Wistar rats.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients attending a tertiary health facility in North-East Nigeria p. 151
Tanko Fisak Maiyaki, Stella Odjimogho, Oghenenioborue Rume Okandeji-Barry, Otovwe Agofure, Musa Enoch
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_18_21  
Background: Poor management of diabetes mellitus (DM) has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality among patients. Likely factors contributing to this trend include inadequate knowledge, attitude, and diabetes management practices among patients. Aim: This study was therefore designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with type 2 DM in patients attending Federal Medical Center, Jalingo Taraba State. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study carried out among 286 type 2 diabetes patients selected purposively. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data, and it comprised of four sections, namely sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of DM, attitude toward DM, and DM management practices. The collected data were entered into IBM SPSS 23.0 and were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics with the level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Most of the respondents 104 (35.62%) were aged 50–59 years and 163 (55.8%) were females. Besides, 89.0% of the respondents demonstrated good knowledge of DM, whereas 56.8% exhibited good attitude toward DM and 81.8% demonstrated good DM management practices. Knowledge of DM showed a significant association with attitude and practice of DM management (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and practice remain vital in the management of DM and prevention of complications. Therefore, more efforts must be channeled into improving and sustaining the knowledge, attitude, and practices of patients to improve their quality of life.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of Type II diabetes mellitus patients with and without chronic periodontitis – A clinico-biochemical study p. 158
Patil Rujuta, AR Pradeep, Purva Chougule, S Swathika
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_21_21  
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional angiogenic cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation and wound healing. The role of this angiogenic factor in periodontal destruction could be significant, and VEGF could act as a potent marker of periodontal disease progression. Its role in diabetes mellitus-related complications has been evaluated, and diabetes mellitus may be a potent modulator of VEGF in periodontal disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) VEGF levels of systemically healthy, chronic periodontitis, and Type II diabetes mellitus participants with and without chronic periodontitis and to investigate the role of VEGF in periodontal disease progression. Materials and Methods: Eighty participants were divided into four groups based on the gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level: (Group 1) healthy, (Group 2) chronic periodontitis, (Group 3) Type II diabetes mellitus without chronic periodontitis, and (Group 4) Type II diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis. GCF samples collected from each subject were quantified for VEGF levels using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Further, the correlation between VEGF levels within groups and with the clinical parameters was analyzed in all groups. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Results: The mean concentration of VEGF in GCF was the highest in Group 4 (2179.24 pg/ml) followed by Group 3 (1948.32 pg/ml), Group 2 (1776.83 pg/ml), and the least in Group 1 (1266.80 pg/ml). Further, GCF VEGF levels showed a positive correlation with all of the clinical parameters. Conclusions: VEGF concentrations increased from health to disease. Type II diabetes mellitus may affect VEGF concentrations in periodontal disease. These data indicate that VEGF plays a key role in periodontal disease progression and can be considered a biomarker of periodontal disease progression.
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Evaluation of haematological parameters and oxidative stress-induced in rats exposed to radio-frequency radiation from mobile phones p. 165
Priscilla Ngozi Ezemelue, D Ugochukwu Onyegbule, Leona Chika Okoli, Kafilat Olaide Kareem, Olufunsho Awodele, Adebayo Akeem Otitoloju
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_23_21  
Introduction: The use of new wireless technologies emitting radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation has been introduced worldwide, raising concerns about their biosafety. So far, there have been contradictory scientific reports which have led to active debates over the bio-effects of EMF on the ecosystem. Aim: This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the bio-effect of exposure to RF-EMF from a mobile phone simulator. Materials and Methods: The experimental study used 16 healthy albino rats (8 females/8 males) randomly selected and divided equally into two groups: Group A (8 rats exposed to mobile phone simulators) and Group C (8 rats as control); the study procedure was carried out for 6 weeks. The rats were examined for physical changes, hematological profiles, and serum oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. Results: The outcome of the study showed that exposure to RF-EMF affected the weight of the animals; this is illustrated when comparing the baseline weight/final weight of the exposed as compared to the control. This trend was also replicated when compared across gender, though further analysis showed no significance across the two groups (P > 0.05). The result of the hematological analysis showed that only granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) showed significance (P = 0.04), while for OS biomarkers, the result showed that superoxide dismutase and catalase showed significant difference (P = 0.02), respectively, across the two groups. Conclusion: This study concludes that exposure to RF-EMF has an associated effect on hematology and OS induction and therefore recommends the adherence to the precautionary principle while further research has been carried out on their specific mechanism and site of action.
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Role of maternal nutritional supplementation on the hormonal profile and immunohistochemical analysis of testicular development of fetal rats p. 172
Taiwo O Kusemiju, Olasunmbo O Afolayan, Babatunde Ogunlade
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_24_21  
Introduction: This study elucidated the role of maternal microelement supplementation on fetal testicular development. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats (21 females and 7 males) were randomly divided into seven groups comprising three females to one male: Group A – standard feed and water; Group B – diet deficient in all the micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Se) and water; Group C – diet fortified with 0.2 mg/kg of selenium and water; Group D – diet enriched with 40 mg/kg of iron and water; Group E – diet fortified with 8 mg/kg of copper and water; and Group F – diet enriched with all nutrients and water. All administration was via oral gavage; thereafter, animals were sacrificed at day 20 of pregnancy. Placenta measurements, testes, and blood serum were obtained for analysis. Results: The results showed statically a significant decrease (p<0.05) in placental and fetal weight (WPF), the distance between fetus and mother (DFM), the concentration of trace elements; FSH and LH levels among chaff only group when compared to the Control group. Testicular histomorphology and immunohistochemical studies of the animals in the chaff alone diet showed mild fetal Leydig cells in the interstitium, primitive germ cells in the testicular cord, pre-Sertoli cell necrosis, and decreased positive expression compared with the control. Conclusion: Administration of single and combined doses of nutritional supplements diet significantly preserved the fetal parameters, hormone profile, and histochemical analysis of the testis.
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Aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum impaired serum testosterone and testicular weight in male wistar rats p. 182
Azubuike Raphael Nwaji, Iniobong Ating Ante, Favour-Ann Kyrian Nwoke
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_31_21  
Background: Tobacco which is a product of Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) has nicotine as its primary phytochemical. Nicotine has been reported to be an addictive drug and the leading cause of tobacco addiction worldwide. The male reproductive system is known to be highly sensitive to many chemicals and drugs which have been found to pose adverse effects on male reproductive capacity. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of N. tabacum on serum testosterone and testicular weight in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 male rats weighing (140–230 g) were used for this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (A, B, and C), containing six rats each. Group A served as control, whereas Group B and C were orally administered sublethal doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight of the N. tabacum extract, respectively, once per day for 21 days. At the end of the experimental period, all the animals were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for hormonal assay and both testes were excised and weighed immediately. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum testosterone levels of rats treated with the extract in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control, there was also a significant reduction in the testicular weight of the treated groups when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous extract of N. tabacum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg when administered for a period of 3-week impaired serum testosterone level, testicular weight, and bodyweight of male Wistar rats.
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Postweaning administration of aqueous leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may improve obesity indices in young adult offspring p. 186
Okekem Amadi, Deborah B Adeniyi, Nkiru A Katchy, Vivian Nwannadi, Princewill Ikechukwu Ugwu, Sandra Ugonne Ugwu, Chioma R Iloabachie, Chinedum U Emelike, Odochi O Chukwu, Cordilia O Iyare
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_32_21  
Introduction: Metabolic diseases are multifactorial resulting from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental influences. Genetic influence alone does not suffice to explain the rate at which these diseases have increased. Diet manipulations during critical developmental periods have been used to identify their contribution to obesity and diabetes development in offspring. Gongronema latifolium (GL) has been used for many generations for medicinal and nonmedicinal purposes. The leaves of GL are primarily used as spice and vegetable in traditional folk medicine. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of postweaning consumption of aqueous leaf extract of GL on obesity indices in young adult offspring. Materials and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were used and pregnancy was achieved by introducing matured male Wistar rats of proven fertility at the ratio of two females to one male during proestrus. At the day of delivery, adult female rats were randomly divided into two groups; Group I (normal control) and Groups II–IV (GL extract-treated group). The offspring of the different maternal groups also assumed their mothers' group. Group I was the normal control group while Groups II–IV were given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of GL extract, respectively. At postnatal day (PND), 21 offspring were weaned from their mothers and assumed the group of their mothers till PND 42. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body weight-waist circumference ratio, insulin level, liver enzymes (ALT, ALP, and AST), and oral glucose tolerance were assessed in the experimental animals. Results: There was a significant decrease in anthropometric indices (body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body weight-waist circumference ratio) and serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels in the young adult offspring of the GL extract group. However, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in insulin level in offspring whose mothers consumed GL extract when compared to the values of the normal control. Conclusions: This study showed that postweaning consumption of GL had significant effects on anthropometric indices, hepatoactivity, insulin sensitivity, and blood glucose level.
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Effect of administration of flavonoid-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa to lactating rats on plasma glucocorticoid, leptin, and postnatal growth of offspring p. 192
Sandra Ugonne Ugwu, Deborah B Adeniyi, Nkiru A Katchy, Vivian Nwannadi, Princewill Ikechukwu Ugwu, Okekem Amadi, Chioma R Iloabachie, Chinedum U Emelike, Odochi O Chukwu, Cordilia O Iyare
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_33_21  
Introduction: Flavonoids are a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structures well-known for their beneficial effects on health. Flavonoids are now considered an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal, and cosmetic applications because of their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti-carcinogenic properties coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function. Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of administration of flavonoids from Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) to lactating rats on plasma glucocorticoids, leptin, and postnatal weights of the offspring. Materials and Methods: Forty pregnant female Sprague − Dawley rats weighing 150 g–200 g were used for this study. Flavonoids were extracted from HS following standard procedures. On the day of delivery, the rats were divided basically into four groups of 10 dams per group. Group A received tap water; Group B received low dose of flavonoid (5 mg/kg body weight daily); Group C received medium dose of flavonoid (10 mg/kg body weight daily); and Group D received high dose of flavonoid (20 mg/kg body weight daily). Flavonoid administration commenced on day 1 of lactation and ended at weaning. Dams from each group had their blood withdrawn from the orbital sinus on days 1, 7, and 21 for assay of plasma glucocorticoids and leptin. Food intake of the dams and body weight of the offspring was measured. Results: There was a progressive dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05) in maternal plasma glucocorticoids and leptin with the most decrease seen in the high dose group and PND 21. Low dose flavonoid caused a progressive decrease in maternal food consumption when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Low dose extract caused a progressive decrease in the body weight of the offspring, whereas the high dose caused a progressive increase in the body weight of the offspring (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Flavonoids from HS caused a progressive decrease in glucocorticoids and leptin with a resultant progressive increase in maternal food intake and body weights of the offspring.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Uterocutaneous fistula postabdominal myomectomy: Successful Repair – Case report and review of literature p. 199
Chidinma Magnus Nwogu, Aloy Okechukwu Ugwu, Adaiah Priscila Soibi-Harry, Samuel Ugochukwu Nwokocha
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_17_21  
Uterocutaneous fistula (UCF) is a very clinical entity that occurs mostly following surgical injuries. We present a case of a 35-year-old nulliparous woman who developed UCF following openabdominal myomectomy. She was managed successfully using laparotomy with fistula tract excision and repair. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously after surgery,
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Ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome p. 202
Khooshbu Gayen, Anisha Bag, Supreet Shirolkar, Rajib Sikdar, Santanu Mukhopadhyay, Subir Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_19_21  
Ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare hereditary congenital defect characterized by a triad of disorders such as ectodermal dysplasia, malformed extremities, and cleft lip and/or palate. We report the case of a 3-month-old girl child with clinical signs of EEC syndrome and offer valuable information into current knowledge about this syndrome. The symptoms of EEC display diversity in both extension and expression. Early diagnosis and management of clinical manifestations associated with this syndrome presents a unique challenge due to the paucity of documents in the literature.
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Application of CBCT data and three-dimensional printing for endodontic diagnosis and treatment: Three case reports p. 206
Srinidhi Vishnu Ballulaya, Neha Taufin, Nenavath Deepthi, Venu Babu Devella
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_20_21  
The combined CBCT and 3-d printing have found its endodontic application in pre-surgical planning models, endodontic access guides and localization of osteotomy preparation site. This article reports a series of three cases where this combined technology have been used. The first case report is of radicular dens invaginatus which was diagnosed by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging and 3D plastic models of the tooth. The case was managed successfully by the combination of both surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment. The second case report is the guided access preparation of lower anterior teeth. A 3D printed template was designed with the CBCT scan for the guided access cavity preparation and was compared with the conventional endodontic access cavity preparation. The third case report is the surgical template guided hemisection. A 3D surgical template was designed which allowed precise angulation of the bur and minimized the excess removal of tooth structure. Thus, the combined use of CBCT and 3D printing enabled visualization of complex root canal anatomies and allowed precise and accurate treatment.
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Management of a periodontally compromised grade III mobile tooth associated with pyogenic granuloma p. 211
Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya, Anirban Chatterjee, Ahad M Hussain, Sushma Das
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_27_21  
With current advancements in the field of dentistry, the dental treatments today are focused more on conserving the tooth and supporting the concept of “nothing serves better than the natural tooth itself.” This case report presents a multidisciplinary treatment approach adopted in retaining a Grade III mobile periodontally compromised permanent maxillary left central incisor in a 32-year-old female patient who reported to the Department of Periodontics and Oral implantology with the chief complaint of intraoral swelling, pus discharge, bleeding gums, and tooth mobility in the upper front tooth region. At 1-year follow-up, the tooth was periodontally stable and functional.
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