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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 10 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 65-103

Online since Monday, December 5, 2022

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Methanolic leaf extract of Dryopteris dilatata reverses kidney injury on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats p. 65
Akpotu Emamuzou Ajirioghene, Celestine Okafor Ani, Doris N Ajebor, Alabarima Favour Elavieniso, Kenneth Obinna Okolo
Background: Hyperglycemia when sustained leads to diabetes which has become a chronic disorder having morbidity and mortality rate. This study investigated the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Dryoptersis dilatata (MEDd) on kidney injury caused on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Group 1 received distilled water (10 ml/kg); Group 2 received STZ (60 mg/kg) only, Groups 3 and 4 received STZ followed by 400 and 800 mg/kg of MEDd, respectively, while Group 5 received STZ + Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and blood, spleen, liver, pancreas, and kidney were collected for biochemical analysis. Results: The results showed that MEDd extract caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic rats, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde nitric oxide, and glutathione superoxide were ameliorated in organs such as the kidney and pancreas in diabetic rats after treatment with MEDd. Kidney markers (urea and creatinine) were ameliorated as well as reduction in organ weights in diabetic rats following treatment with MEDd. Conclusion: Therefore, it was observed from our study that MEDd has antidiabetic and nephron-protective capacity as it ameliorates in vivo adopted in lieu of nephropancreatic caused by STZ-induced diabetes.
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Dexamethasone-induced derangement in some liver function parameters: Hepatoprotective effect of L-Citrulline p. 74
Timothy Danboyi, Abdulazeez Jimoh, Evelyn Hassan-Danboyi, Abdul Wahab Alhassan, Augustine Banlibo Dubo
Background: Dexamethasone is not only a potent glucocorticoid with several health benefits but is also associated with severe side effects, one of which is hepatotoxicity. L-Citrulline is known to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antidyslipidemic effects, among others, of which hepatoprotection has not been extensively explored. We aimed to assess the effect of L-Citrulline on dexamethasone-induced derangement in liver enzymes and serum proteins in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male Wistar rats, weighing between 200 and 250 g, were randomly assigned into five groups of five rats each. While Group I received no intervention, dexamethasone intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg) was administered to the other groups for 7 days. Groups III, IV, and V were pretreated with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg L-Citrulline daily for 21 days, respectively. Biochemical assessment was made after humanely sacrificing the animals. Values at P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant compared to the dexamethasone group. Results: L-Citrulline significantly lowered the levels of aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), gamma–glutamyltransferase, and serum total and conjugated bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest reduction in alkaline phosphatase level by L-Citrulline was recorded at 200 mg/kg (13.96 ± 0.73 IU/L). Similarly, the total protein level was significantly increased by L-Citrulline 800 mg/kg (9.38 ± 0.39 g/dL), but the greatest increase in albumin level was at 400 mg/kg (4.20 ± 0.21 g/dL). In a dose-dependent manner, the AST: ALT ratios were markedly reduced while the albumin: globulin ratios were greatly increased following L-Citrulline supplementation. Conclusion: L-Citrulline supplementation confers hepatoprotective effect against dexamethasone-induced derangements in liver enzymes and serum proteins in Wistar rats.
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Conceptualization of facial beauty among female students in a Southwestern Nigerian university using the golden ratio model p. 81
Kingsley Afoke Iteire, Favour Chukwudebe, Victor O Ukwenya, Funmilayo O Johnson, Raphael Eguono Uwejigho, Felix U Enemali
Introduction: The golden ratio is a mathematical formula proposed over the years to assess facial beauty objectively. The correlation between the golden ratio and facial attractiveness has been researched in the Caucasian and Asian populations, with little literature on the African population. This study aimed to establish a baseline study on the relationship between subjective assessment of facial beauty and the golden ratio among female students of the University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: One hundred female students aged 1622 years were mobilized for the study. The facial landmarks that Gary Meisner proposed and the PhiMatrix software to analyze golden facial ratios were employed. A relationship between the subjective perception of beauty and the golden ratio was established by having observers rate the photographs; based on this; the sample was grouped into esthetically pleasant, unpleasant, and acceptable. The golden facial ratios were then measured in these classified faces. Results: The result revealed that 68 females from the study sample conformed to the golden ratio. The highest percentage from the esthetically pleasant groups was significant at P < 0.05. When these ratios were isolated and tested, only four of the ratios were substantial, at P < 0.05. Conclusion: From this result, it is possible to infer a relationship between the golden ratio and facial attractiveness. However, it may not be used as an objective measure of facial beauty because many faces classified as acceptable and unattractive also exhibit golden proportions.
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Anti-ulcer potentials of aqueous extract of Triticum aestivum on delayed healing of experimentally induced/gastric ulcer p. 90
Grace Iyabo Adebayo-Gege, David Ayo Adetomiwa, Tosan Peter Omayone, Oloruntoba Christopher Akintayo, Queen Bisi Ozegbe, Igbayilola Yusuff Dimeji, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo
Background: Ulcer reoccurrence and delay of healing caused by certain factors is now a major problem with the treatment of peptic ulcer. This study sought to unravel the role of Triticum aestivum in delayed ulcer healing in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty five (25) Experimental animals (male Wistar rats) weighing 120g – 150g were randomly divided into five groups (N = 5) viz; I (Control), II (20% acetic acid ulceration + 2 mg/kg of indomethacin), III, IV, and V received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of T. aestivum + 20% acetic acid ulceration + 2 mg/kg of indomethacin. Ulcer was induced by serosa application of 20% acetic acid and was delayed by subcutaneous administration of 2 mg/kg of indomethacin for 14 days. Results: Findings from this study showed that the relative body weight changes decreased substantially in delayed untreated group juxtaposed to control which was improved in T. aestivum extract (TAE) groups. Total gastric acidity, ulcer area, and relative stomach weight were substantially (P < 0.05) increased in delayed ulcer group juxtaposed to control group. These changes were substantially reversed in TAE-treated groups. A substantial decrease was observed in the catalase level and expression of nitric oxide accompanied by an increase in malondialdehyde was noted in delayed ulcer group juxtaposed to control which were ameliorated in all TAE treated groups. Histological and macroscopic evaluations revealed that there was a substantial decrease in inflammation and erosion of the gastric mucosa in groups treated with T. aestivum juxtaposed to delayed ulcer group. Conclusion: It can thus be said that aqueous extract of T. aestivum attenuates delayed gastric ulcer healing due to antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. The highest concentration (200 mg/kg) in this proved to be the most beneficial.
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its association with malaria in the administrative divisions of Lagos State, Nigeria p. 98
Oladayo Musa Babalola, Adetunji Alabi Alli, Mojeed Ayoola Ashiru
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of red blood cells' most common inherited enzyme disorders. It is currently believed to affect approximately 500 million individuals worldwide. The deficiency could result in several hematological conditions, including acute hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice, and kernicterus. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the five administrative divisions of Lagos State. The association between malaria and G6PD deficiency was also investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 participants, comprising 63 (60%) males and 42 (40%) females, were recruited from five locations for this study. Two milliliters of venous blood were collected and divided into three portions for G6PD enzyme assay, hematological parameter, and malaria diagnosis. G6PD enzyme level was determined using a quantitative spectrophotometric assay, whereas the malaria parasite was examined using microscopy and rapid diagnostic test kits. Results: An overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 21%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males (22.2%) and females (19%), whereas a marginally higher G6PD activity in males (10.15 ± 0.50 vs. 8.61 ± 0.31 U/g Hb) (P < 0.05) was recorded. Although there were slight differences in prevalence obtained in the five sampling locations, however, the one-way analysis of variance of the G6PD activity levels showed no significant difference between any pairs (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the results obtained from this study showed no association between malaria and G6PD deficiency (χ2 = 1.432, P = 0.231). Conclusions: The study found a relatively high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Nigerian subpopulation, indicating that G6PD deficiency is common in this environment. This emphasizes the need for a quantitative G6PD assay as part of laboratory investigations for those presenting with an episode of acute hemolytic anemia in this geographical region of the country.
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