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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 98-103

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its association with malaria in the administrative divisions of Lagos State, Nigeria

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemical Sciences, Biochemistry Unit, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Adetunji Alabi Alli
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_14_22

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Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of red blood cells' most common inherited enzyme disorders. It is currently believed to affect approximately 500 million individuals worldwide. The deficiency could result in several hematological conditions, including acute hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice, and kernicterus. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the five administrative divisions of Lagos State. The association between malaria and G6PD deficiency was also investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 participants, comprising 63 (60%) males and 42 (40%) females, were recruited from five locations for this study. Two milliliters of venous blood were collected and divided into three portions for G6PD enzyme assay, hematological parameter, and malaria diagnosis. G6PD enzyme level was determined using a quantitative spectrophotometric assay, whereas the malaria parasite was examined using microscopy and rapid diagnostic test kits. Results: An overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 21%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males (22.2%) and females (19%), whereas a marginally higher G6PD activity in males (10.15 ± 0.50 vs. 8.61 ± 0.31 U/g Hb) (P < 0.05) was recorded. Although there were slight differences in prevalence obtained in the five sampling locations, however, the one-way analysis of variance of the G6PD activity levels showed no significant difference between any pairs (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the results obtained from this study showed no association between malaria and G6PD deficiency (χ2 = 1.432, P = 0.231). Conclusions: The study found a relatively high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Nigerian subpopulation, indicating that G6PD deficiency is common in this environment. This emphasizes the need for a quantitative G6PD assay as part of laboratory investigations for those presenting with an episode of acute hemolytic anemia in this geographical region of the country.

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