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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 35-39

Correlation of glycemic control with calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ekiye Ayinbuomwan
Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_3_22

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Context: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) accounts for over 90% of diabetic cases with a prevalence of 0.33/1000 children in the African subregion. Hyperglycemia which is the major characteristic of T1DM may have a direct toxicity on osteoblasts and could lead to increased bone fragility and fractures in patients with T1DM. However, long-term glucose control can be monitored effectively with the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum calcium, and inorganic phosphate are simple ways of assessing bone mineral density. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, and ALP. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study with a total of 26 T1DM patients and 20 apparently well children within the age range of 1–18 years. Blood samples were collected from the patients for measurement of HbAIc, serum ALP, serum calcium, and inorganic phosphate at the beginning of the study and after 3 months of insulin therapy. Results: The baseline mean HbA1c was significantly higher in the T1DM patients than in the controls (P = 0.00) and there was no significant decrease in HbA1c after 3 months of insulin therapy (P = 0.13) although HbA1c tended to be lower (12.57 ± 0.86% [baseline], 10.12 ± 0.74% [3 months postinsulin therapy]). There was a statistically significant reduction in ALP (P = 0.00). There was also a statistically significant correlation between ALP and mean HbA1c (r = 0.79, P = 0.00). Conclusion: Patients with T1DM often exhibit disorders related to calcium, inorganic phosphate, and ALP homeostasis with associated poor bone metabolism which may improve with adequate glycemic control and the addition of calcium supplements to their therapy.

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