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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 234-244

Evaluation of the Ameliorative Roles of Vitamins A, C, and E on Alanine Aminotransferase Production in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Lead Nitrate


1 Department of Animal Biology, Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
2 Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Patrick Ozovehe Samuel
Department of Animal Biology, Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Federal University of Technology, Minna
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_25_21

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Background: Pollutants from industrial and commercial usage of chemicals all over the world that usually lead to release of myriads of toxic pollutants such as lead call for concern. Aim and Objective: The effects of lead nitrate on the production of antioxidants such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Clarias gariepinus and how such effects can be ameliorated through administration of vitamins were investigated. Materials and Methods: C. gariepinus fingerlings (whose initial weight ranged from 3 to 11 g) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Pb (00, 26 mg/L, 44 mg/L, 61 mg/L, and 79 mg/L) with replicate in each case. 26 mg/L of the vitamins was administered across all bud. Fresh concentrations of both toxicant and vitamins were administered every 72 h for a period of 12 weeks every time the water medium was changed. The various treatments group include Pb (Pb only), PbVA (Pb + vitamin A), PbVC ((Pb + vitamin C), and PbVE (Pb + vitamin E) with T1-T4 and replicates in each case. Three samples of the fish were randomly selected and sacrificed from each aquarium tank every 2 weeks of the exposure period. The gills, kidneys, and liver were excised from these specimens and homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer. These were then assayed for ALT production levels in each case. The data generated were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and considered significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: In samples exposed to Pb only group, the ALT production levels indicated that the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 87.20 ± 0.15 nM/mg, 65.76 ± 0.20 nM/mg, and 69.92 ± 0.05 nM/mg, respectively. Samples exposed to PbVA indicated that the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 77.12 ± 0.20 nM/mg, 84.75 ± 0.10 nM/mg, and 70.43 ± 0.24 nM/mg, respectively. Conclusions and Recommendation: In samples exposed to PbVC, the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 86.53 ± 0.05 nM/mg, 63.48 ± 0.15 nM/mg, and 66.53 ± 0.15 nM/mg, respectively. In samples exposed to PbVE, the highest ALT produced in the liver, kidney, and gills was 73.82 ± 0.15 nM/mg, 78.05 ± 0.15 nM/mg, and 73.31 ± 0.05 nM/mg, respectively. The samples of the fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of the toxicant in the various treatments displayed varying levels of production of the enzyme with higher production levels mostly at higher concentrations of the toxicant. In the Pb only and PbVC groups, the liver of the samples produced the highest ALT, while the kidneys did same in the PbVA and PbVE groups. The high levels of production of the enzyme, especially in higher concentrations suggest physiological imbalances due to the presence of the toxicant.


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