|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 186-191
Postweaning administration of aqueous leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may improve obesity indices in young adult offspring
Okekem Amadi1, Deborah B Adeniyi2, Nkiru A Katchy2, Vivian Nwannadi2, Princewill Ikechukwu Ugwu2, Sandra Ugonne Ugwu2, Chioma R Iloabachie2, Chinedum U Emelike3, Odochi O Chukwu4, Cordilia O Iyare2
1 Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Reproductive and Developmental Programming Research Group, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Reproductive and Developmental Programming Research Group, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Reproductive and Developmental Programming Research Group, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike, Abakaliki, Nigeria
4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Reproductive and Developmental Programming Research Group, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu; Physiology Unit, College of Health Sciences, Evangel University, Akaeze Ebonyi State, Nigeria
|Date of Submission||07-Aug-2021|
|Date of Decision||23-Aug-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||24-Aug-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Nov-2021|
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Metabolic diseases are multifactorial resulting from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental influences. Genetic influence alone does not suffice to explain the rate at which these diseases have increased. Diet manipulations during critical developmental periods have been used to identify their contribution to obesity and diabetes development in offspring. Gongronema latifolium (GL) has been used for many generations for medicinal and nonmedicinal purposes. The leaves of GL are primarily used as spice and vegetable in traditional folk medicine. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of postweaning consumption of aqueous leaf extract of GL on obesity indices in young adult offspring. Materials and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were used and pregnancy was achieved by introducing matured male Wistar rats of proven fertility at the ratio of two females to one male during proestrus. At the day of delivery, adult female rats were randomly divided into two groups; Group I (normal control) and Groups II–IV (GL extract-treated group). The offspring of the different maternal groups also assumed their mothers' group. Group I was the normal control group while Groups II–IV were given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of GL extract, respectively. At postnatal day (PND), 21 offspring were weaned from their mothers and assumed the group of their mothers till PND 42. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body weight-waist circumference ratio, insulin level, liver enzymes (ALT, ALP, and AST), and oral glucose tolerance were assessed in the experimental animals. Results: There was a significant decrease in anthropometric indices (body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body weight-waist circumference ratio) and serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels in the young adult offspring of the GL extract group. However, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in insulin level in offspring whose mothers consumed GL extract when compared to the values of the normal control. Conclusions: This study showed that postweaning consumption of GL had significant effects on anthropometric indices, hepatoactivity, insulin sensitivity, and blood glucose level.
Keywords: Anthropometric indices, Gongronema latifolium, insulin, liver enzymes obesity, oral glucose tolerance, sucrose
|How to cite this article:|
Amadi O, Adeniyi DB, Katchy NA, Nwannadi V, Ugwu PI, Ugwu SU, Iloabachie CR, Emelike CU, Chukwu OO, Iyare CO. Postweaning administration of aqueous leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may improve obesity indices in young adult offspring. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2021;9:186-91
|How to cite this URL:|
Amadi O, Adeniyi DB, Katchy NA, Nwannadi V, Ugwu PI, Ugwu SU, Iloabachie CR, Emelike CU, Chukwu OO, Iyare CO. Postweaning administration of aqueous leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may improve obesity indices in young adult offspring. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 May 29];9:186-91. Available from: https://www.njecbonline.org/text.asp?2021/9/3/186/331558
| Introduction|| |
In the last few decades, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes have escalated to epidemic proportions in many countries worldwide. These metabolic diseases are multifactorial resulting from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental influences. Genetic influence alone does not suffice to explain the rate at which these diseases have increased. In fact, several studies demonstrate that metabolic events during pre- and postnatal development modulate metabolic disease risks in later life. Feeding conditions likely constitute one of the most influential parameters on the health of the adult. Thus, diet manipulation in mothers during critical developmental periods has been used to identify their contribution to obesity and diabetes development in offspring. The importance of early environment, including maternal diet during pregnancy, is suspected to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and related conditions. One of the proposed mechanisms is a mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environments, leading to misprogramming of the metabolic and signaling pathways of the developing fetus.,
Plants have been an old companion of man providing food, shelter, wealth and have helped in maintaining relatively good health by its preventive and curative potentials when properly utilized. Medicinal plants constitute an effective source of both orthodox and traditional medicine. Although modern medicine may be available in developing countries, the use of herbs in the treatment of diseases has often gained popularity for historical and cultural reasons. Herbal medicine has been shown to have genuine utility with about 80% of rural dwellers in developing countries depending solely on it for primary health care. The presence of a wide range of bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites has made plants promising source of modern synthetic drugs for the management of several diseases.
Gongronema latifolium (GL) (Asclepiadaceae) is an herbaceous shrub, with yellow flowers and the stem that yields characteristic milky exudates when cut. It is locally called “utasi” by the Efiks, Ibibios, and Quas; “utazi” by the Igbos and “arokeke” by the Yorubas in Nigeria. The Efiks and Quas use GL crude leaf extract in the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, and as laxative. Furthermore, it is used as a spice and vegetable. The use of crude leaf extract of this shrub in maintaining healthy blood glucose levels has been reported., Scientific studies have established the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidative effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of GL leaf., GL has been used for many generations for medicinal and nonmedicinal purposes. The leaves of GL are primarily used as spice and vegetable in traditional folk medicine.,
Reports by various authors showed that GL contains essential oils, saponins, and pregnones among others. Ugochukwu and Babady reported that aqueous and ethanolic extract of GL had hypoglycemic effect and showed that it has anti-inflammatory properties. Antilipid peroxidative activity of GL in streptozotocin-induced diabetes was reported by Nwanjo et al. Antibacterial activity has also been reported for GL. Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects have also been reported.,,
| Materials and Methods|| |
Collection of plant material and extraction
Fresh leaves of GL that was used for this study were obtained from local farmers in Nsukka, Enugu state in Nigeria. They were identified and authenticated by a taxonomist at the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The method used by Holy et al. was adopted for extraction of the aqueous plant extract. Fresh GL leaves were washed with water, air-dried for 1 week, and homogenized in a warring blender. 1000 g of the finely ground dried plant leaves were immersed into 1000 ml of distilled water. The mixture was allowed to stand for 72 h. It was then filtered using a Whatman No. 1 filter paper. Following filtration, the filtrate was evaporated to dryness over a water bath at 45°C. The pasty filtrate obtained after drying was weighed using an electronic weighing balance. The stock solution of the extract was prepared by dissolving 10 g of the extract in 100 ml of distilled water to give a concentration of 100 mg/ml. The stock solution was appropriately labeled and refrigerated at 4°C until required for use.
Sixteen adult female Wistar rats (180–250 g) were obtained from the animal house, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus and used for this study. The animals were maintained under standard laboratory conditions (12 h light and 12 h dark schedule); they were fed with commercially formulated rat pellets and tap water ad libitum. The animals were allowed to acclimatize to the new laboratory environment for 1 week after which they were divided into groups before the commencement of the experiment.
Experimental design and treatment schedule
The estrus cycle of the female rats was monitored daily under light microscopy. Male Wistar rats were introduced at proestrus at a ratio of two females to a male. The day of appearance of vaginal plug was designated as day 1 of pregnancy. On the day of delivery, the rats were randomly assigned into four groups with four offspring in each group. Group I was the normal control group while Groups II–IV were the extract-treated groups. After day 21, the offspring was separated from their mothers (postweaning period). The offspring of the different maternal groups also assumed their mothers group. Group I was the normal control group while Groups II–IV were given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of GL extract, respectively.
Measurement of body mass index
After weaning, the weight and length of the offspring were recorded weekly to postnatal day (PND) 42. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the weight of rats (g) divided by the length (cm2). The length of rats was measured between nasal and anal region.
Measurement of waist circumference
Waist circumference of the offspring was recorded (cm) weekly to PND 42.
Measurement of body weight-waist circumference ratio
Body weight-waist circumference was calculated and recorded (g/cm) weekly to PND 42 by dividing the offspring body weight by the waist circumference.
Oral glucose tolerance test
For the oral glucose tolerance test, rats were deprived of food for 12 h. After the food deprivation period, blood samples of the rats were withdrawn from the tail veins. Rats were then given 3 g/kg body weight of glucose solution by oral gavage. The tail blood samples were taken at 0 (just before glucose administration), 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose administration and were analyzed using a glucometer (Accu-Chek), respectively.
Serum insulin was measured by enzyme-linked inmunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rat insulin ELISA kit (Mercodia, USA).
Liver function test
Whole blood was separated with high-speed macrocentrifuge at 3500 rev/min for 10 min, and serum was separated by Pasteur pipette for analysis of the following biochemical assays alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as previously described, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and statistically evaluated using analysis of variance, followed by a post hoc test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM SPSS version 23, Chicago, USA). A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
[Figure 1] shows the effect of postweaning consumption of GL on offspring body weight. Graded administration of GL (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) reduced body weight significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the normal control. 200 mg/kg extract-treated group shows to be more potent in offspring bodyweight reduction.
|Figure 1: Body weight of offspring of rats that consumed extract of GL postweaning. I = normal control, II = 100 mg/kg GL, III = 200 mg/kg GL, IV = 400 mg/kg GL. a = P ≤ 0.05 versus control, b = P < 0.05 versus 100 and c = P < 0.05 versus 200. Values expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 4). GL: Gongronema latifolium, SEM: Standard error of mean|
Click here to view
[Table 1] depicts the effect of postweaning consumption of GL on offspring BMI compared to the normal control group, extract treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced offspring BMI. Furthermore, 200 mg/kg extract-treated group exerts a more significant (P < 0.05) reduction in offspring BMI than the other extract-treated groups.
|Table 1: Body mass index of offspring of rats that consumed extract of Gongronema latifolium postweaning|
Click here to view
As evident in [Figure 2], compared to the normal control, GL treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced waist circumference of offspring. [Figure 3] also shows that postweaning consumption of GL significantly (P < 0.05) reduced body weight-waist circumference ratio when compared to the normal control group.
|Figure 2: Waist circumference of offspring of rats that consumed extract of GL postweaning. I = normal control, II = 100 mg/kg GL, III = 200 mg/kg GL, IV = 400 mg/kg GL. a = P ≤ 0.05 versus control, b = P < 0.05 versus 100 and c = P < 0.05 versus 200. Values expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 4). GL: Gongronema latifolium, SEM: Standard error of mean|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Body weight - waist circumference ratio of offspring of rats that consumed extract of GL postweaning. I = normal control, II = 100 mg/kg GL, III = 200 mg/kg GL, IV = 400 mg/kg GL. a = P ≤ 0.05 versus control, b = P < 0.05 versus 100 and c = P < 0.05 versus 200. Values expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 4). GL: Gongronema latifolium, SEM: Standard error of mean|
Click here to view
[Table 2] shows the effect of postweaning consumption of GL on offspring insulin level compared to the normal control, extract treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased insulin level, with 200 mg/kg being more potent. [Table 3] shows that GL consumption statistically (P < 0.05) decreased liver enzymes (ALT, ALP, and AST) levels when compared to the normal control. [Figure 4] shows that generally postweaning consumption of GL statistically (P < 0.05) decreased oral glucose tolerance when compared to the normal control.
|Table 2: Insulin level of offspring of rats that consumed extract of Gongronema latifolium postweaning|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Liver function of offspring of rats that consumed extract of Gongronema latifolium postweaning|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Oral glucose tolerance test of offspring of rats that consumed extract of GL postweaning. I = Normal control, II = 100 mg/kg GL, III = 200 mg/kg GL, IV = 400 mg/kg GL. a = P ≤ 0.05 versus control, b = P < 0.05 versus 100 and c = P < 0.05 versus 200. Values expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 4). GL: Gongronema latifolium, SEM: Standard error of mean|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of maternal consumption of sucrose during lactation and offspring postweaning consumption of GL on postnatal growth and glucose homeostasis as it pertains to offspring body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body weight-waist circumference ratio, fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance, insulin level, liver function (ALP, ALT, and AST).
The result showed a decrease in anthropometric parameters (body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body weight-waist circumference ratio) in the GL extract-treated groups when compared to the normal control group; this may be attributed to the postweaning consumption of GL. This study is consistent with the report of Nwaka et al. This decrease could be due to the presence of the phytochemical saponin, or because of the unpalatability of GL due to the bitter substances present in the leaves which could have reduced the rats appetite of the offspring and hence a decrease in the body weight observed in the offspring. The decrease in anthropometric indices is believed to be due activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) by GL polyphenols, saponins that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. Activated AMPK triggers a decrease in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, increases lipolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis (catabolism), and inhibits anabolism,,, therefore, resulting in a decrease in body weight, BMI, waist circumference. Furthermore, in addition to maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, AMPK responds to different hormone signals to maintain whole-body energy balance.
In this study, the effect of postweaning consumption of GL on offspring insulin level revealed a significant increase in insulin level in GL extract treated groups compared to the normal control. The result reflects a dose-dependent effect of GL extract, this effect demonstrates the antidiabetic potency, as well as blood glucose reducing effect,, and insulin stimulating abilities of GL.
Hepatoprotective potential of aqueous leaf extract of GL on hepatic activity in offspring rats was investigated. The extract was administered at the doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. The result showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum liver enzymes (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST], and alanine phosphatase [ALP]) of all the extract-treated groups compared to normal control group, this is in agreement with the report of Balogun et al. and Imo et al. The normal control showed an increased serum ALT, ALP, and AST values, but this increase may not indicate hepatic damage. ALT is a known hepatospecific enzyme that is principally found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes., Similarly, AST is present in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of liver cells, and increase in the enzymatic activity of ALT and AST in the serum may directly reflect a major permeability or cell rupture. GL reduces serum liver enzymes, thereby plays a hepatoprotective role and antioxidative effect against oxidative stress and liver damage.,,
This study also showed that aqueous leaf extracts treatment in rats caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in the blood glucose level compared to the normal control, this is in agreement with the report of Udo et al. The observed hypoglycaemic potency of GL has been suggested by Ugochukwu et al. to be mediated through the activation of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and inhibition of glucokinase in the liver. When these enzymes are activated, glycolysis and glycogenesis proceed faster resulting in lowering of blood glucose.
| Conclusion|| |
The results of the present study showed that postweaning consumption of GL significantly affected anthropometric indices, hepatoactivity, insulin sensitivity, and blood glucose level.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Howie GJ, Sloboda DM, Kamal T, Vickers MH. Maternal nutritional history predicts obesity in adult offspring independent of postnatal diet. J Physiol 2009;587:905-15.
Koletzko B, Broekaert I, Demmelmair H, Franke J, Hannibal I, Oberle D, et al
. Protein intake in the first year of life: A risk factor for later obesity? The E.U. childhood obesity project. Adv Exp Med Biol 2005;569:69-79.
Beck B, Richy S, Archer ZA, Mercer JG. Ingestion of carbohydrate-rich supplements during gestation programs insulin and leptin resistance but not body weight gain in adult rat offspring. Front Physiol 2012;3:224.
Alzamendi A, Castrogiovanni D, Gaillard RC, Spinedi E, Giovambattista A. Increased male offspring's risk of metabolic-neuroendocrine dysfunction and overweight after fructose-rich diet intake by the lactating mother. Endocrinology 2010;151:4214-23.
McMillen IC, Robinson JS. Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: Prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 2005;85:571-633.
Armitage JA, Taylor PD, Poston L. Experimental models of developmental programming: Consequences of exposure to an energy rich diet during development. J Physiol 2005;565:3-8.
Kumar VL, Padhy BM. Protective effect of aqueous suspension of dried latex of Calotropis procera
against oxidative stress and renal damage in diabetic rats. Biocell 2011;35:63-9.
Akinyemi KO, Oladapo O, Okwara CE, Ibe CC, Fasure KA. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
activity. BMC Complement Altern Med 2005;5:6.
Morebise O, Fafunso MA, Makinde JM, Olajide OA, Awe EO. Antiinflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema
latifolium. Phytother Res 2002;16 Suppl 1:S75-7.
Okafor JC. Woody Plants of Nutritional Importance in Traditional Farming System of Nigerian Humid Tropics. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan; 1981.
Okafor JC. Identification and conservation of plants used in traditional medicine. In: Lead Lecture Presented at the International Workshop on Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. Nsukka: University of Nigeria; 1987.
Ugochukwu NH, Babady NE, Cobourne M, Gasset SR. The effect of Gongronema
latifolium extracts on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats. J Biosci 2003;28:1-5.
Ogundipe OO, Moody JO, Akinyemi TO, Raman A. Hypoglycaemic potentials of methanolic extracts of selected plant foods in alloxanized mice. Plt Foods Hum Nutr 2003;58:1-7.
Ugochukwu NH, Babady NE. Antioxidant effects of Gongronema
latifolium in hepatocytes of rat models of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Fitoterapia 2002;73:612-8.
Nwanjo HU, Okafor MC, Oze GO. Anti-lipid peroxidative activity of Gongronema
latifolium in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 2006;21:61-5.
Eleyinmi AF. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Gongronema
latifolium. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2007;8:352-8.
Holy B, DaviesT, Thompson NI. Hepato-renal toxicity of Gongronema
latifolium extracts on streptozocin induced diabetes in rats. Am J Health Res 2016;4:62-9.
Novelli EL, Diniz YS, Galhardi CM, Ebaid GM, Rodrigues HG, Mani F, et al.
Anthropometrical parameters and markers of obesity in rats. Lab Anim 2007;41:111-9.
Sedová L, Seda O, Kazdová L, Chylíková B, Hamet P, Tremblay J, et al.
Sucrose feeding during pregnancy and lactation elicits distinct metabolic response in offspring of an inbred genetic model of metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007;292:E1318-24.
Okoduwa SI, Umar IA, James DB, Inuwa HM. Appropriate insulin level in selecting fortified diet-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat model of Type 2 diabetes for anti-diabetic studies. PLoS One 2017;12:e0170971.
Tietz NW, Shuey DF. Reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase activity determined by the IFCC and AACC reference methods. Clin Chem 1986;32:1593-4.
Bergmeyer HU, Hørder M, Rej R. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Scientific Committee, Analytical Section: Approved recommendation (1985) on IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentration of enzymes. Part 3. IFCC method for alanine aminotransferase (L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 126.96.36.199). J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1986;24:481-95.
Klauke R, Schmidt E, Lorentz K. Recommendations for carrying out standard ECCLS procedures (1988) for the catalytic concentrations of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase at 37 degrees C. Standardization Committee of the German Society for Clinical Chemistry, Enzyme Working Group of the German Society for Clinical Chemistry. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1993;31:901-9.
Nwaka AC, Amu PA, Ikeyi PA, Okoye DC. Comparative effect of ethanolic extract of Gongronema
latifolium (Utazi) and Vitex doniana
(Uchakiri) leaves on the body weight and lipid profile of Wistar albino rats. Glob J Biotechnol Biochem 2015;10:126-13.
Kim JH, Hahm DH, Yang DC, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Shim I. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat diet-induced obesity in the rat. J Pharmacol Sci 2005;97:124-31.
Chung KT, Wong TY, Wei CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1998;38:421-64.
Long YC, Zierath JR. AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in metabolic regulation. J Clin Invest 2006;116:1776-83.
Hardie DG, Ross FA, Hawley SA. AMPK: A nutrient and energy sensor that maintains energy homeostasis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2012;13:251-62.
Hardie DG. AMPK: Positive and negative regulation, and its role in whole-body energy homeostasis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2015;33:1-7.
Aka PA, Uzodinma SU, Okolo CE. Antidiabetic activity of aqeous and methanol extract and fraction of Gongronema
) leaves in Alloxan diabetic rats. J Appl Pharmaceut Sci 2011;1:99-102.
Saidu AN, Okorocha SC. Phytochemical screening and hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Gongronema
latifolium leaf in alloxan induced diadetic rats. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci 2013;4:855-8.
Udo FV, Eshiet GA, Akpan GO, Edu FE (2013). Hypoglycemic effect of Gongronema
latifolium. L extracts in rats. J Nat Sci Res 2013;3:37-44.
Adebajo AC, Ayeola MD, Verspohl EJ. Insulinotropic constituents and evaluation of ethno medicinal claim of Gongronema
latifolium root and stem. Diabetes Metabol 2012;38:115.
Balogun ME, Besong EE, Obimma JN, Mbamalu OS, Djobissie SF. Gongronema
latifolium: A phytochemical, nutritional and pharmacological review. J Phys Pharm Adv 2016;6:811-24.
Imo C, Uhegbu FO, Ifeanacho NG, Azubuike NC (2015). Histological and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic way extract of Gongronema
latifolium berthin acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in male albino rats. Intern J Prev Med Res 2015;1:217-26.
Ringler DH, Dabich L. Haematology and Clinical Biochemistry. In: Baker II.J, Lindsey JR, Weisbrroth SH, editors. The Laboratory Rat. Vol. 1. London: Academic Press; 1979. p. 105-18.
Benjamin MN. Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. IOWA, USA: University Press; 1978. p. 229-32.
Wittwer FM, Bohmwald L. Manual de Patologia Clinica Veterinaria. Valdivia, Chile:Valdivia, Chile; 1986. p. 53-93.
Akpan HD, Ekpo AJ. Protective role of diets containing Gongronema
latifolium leaves on streptozotocin- induced oxidative stress and liver damage. J Appl Pharmaceut Sci 2015;5:85-90.
Analike RA, Ahaneku JE. Effects of Gongronema
latifolium on blood lipids, lipoproteins and glucose values in adult Nigerians. Int J Res Med Sci 2017;3:891-5.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]