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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-164

Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of Type II diabetes mellitus patients with and without chronic periodontitis – A clinico-biochemical study

1 Department of Periodontology, The Oxford Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Patil Rujuta
Department of Periodontology, The Oxford Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_21_21

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Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional angiogenic cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation and wound healing. The role of this angiogenic factor in periodontal destruction could be significant, and VEGF could act as a potent marker of periodontal disease progression. Its role in diabetes mellitus-related complications has been evaluated, and diabetes mellitus may be a potent modulator of VEGF in periodontal disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) VEGF levels of systemically healthy, chronic periodontitis, and Type II diabetes mellitus participants with and without chronic periodontitis and to investigate the role of VEGF in periodontal disease progression. Materials and Methods: Eighty participants were divided into four groups based on the gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level: (Group 1) healthy, (Group 2) chronic periodontitis, (Group 3) Type II diabetes mellitus without chronic periodontitis, and (Group 4) Type II diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis. GCF samples collected from each subject were quantified for VEGF levels using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Further, the correlation between VEGF levels within groups and with the clinical parameters was analyzed in all groups. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Results: The mean concentration of VEGF in GCF was the highest in Group 4 (2179.24 pg/ml) followed by Group 3 (1948.32 pg/ml), Group 2 (1776.83 pg/ml), and the least in Group 1 (1266.80 pg/ml). Further, GCF VEGF levels showed a positive correlation with all of the clinical parameters. Conclusions: VEGF concentrations increased from health to disease. Type II diabetes mellitus may affect VEGF concentrations in periodontal disease. These data indicate that VEGF plays a key role in periodontal disease progression and can be considered a biomarker of periodontal disease progression.

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